Biography of Giorgos Seferis
Giorgos or George Seferis was the pen name of Geōrgios Seferiádēs. He was one of the most important Greek poets of the 20th century, and a Nobel laureate. He was also a career diplomat in the Greek Foreign Service, culminating in his appointment as Ambassador to the UK, a post which he held from 1957 to 1962.
Seferis was born in Urla (Greek: Βουρλά) near Smyrna in Asia Minor, Ottoman Empire (now İzmir, Turkey). His father, Stelios Seferiadis, was a lawyer, and later a professor at the University of Athens, as well as a poet and translator in his own right. He was also a staunch Venizelist and a supporter of the demotic Greek language over the formal, official language (katharevousa). Both of these attitudes influenced his son. In 1914 the family moved to Athens, where Seferis completed his secondary school education. He continued his studies in Paris from 1918 to 1925, studying law at the Sorbonne. While he was there, in September 1922, Smyrna/Izmir was taken by the Turkish Army after a two year Greek military campaign on Anatolian soil. Many Greeks, including Seferis' family, fled from Asia Minor. Seferis would not visit Smyrna again until 1950; the sense of being an exile from his childhood home would inform much of Seferis' poetry, showing itself particularly in his interest in the story of Odysseus. Seferis was also greatly influenced by Kavafis, T.S. Eliot and Ezra Pound.
He returned to Athens in 1925 and was admitted to the Royal Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the following year. This was the beginning of a long and successful diplomatic career, during which he held posts in England (1931–1934) and Albania (1936–1938). He married Maria Zannou ('Maro') on April 10, 1941 on the eve of the German invasion of Greece. During the Second World War, Seferis accompanied the Free Greek Government in exile to Crete, Egypt, South Africa, and Italy, and returned to liberated Athens in 1944. He continued to serve in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and held diplomatic posts in Ankara, Turkey (1948–1950) and London (1951–1953). He was appointed minister to Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Iraq (1953–1956), and was Royal Greek Ambassador to the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1961, the last post before his retirement in Athens. Seferis received many honours and prizes, among them honorary doctoral degrees from the universities of Cambridge (1960), Oxford (1964), Salonika (1964), and Princeton (1965).
Seferis first visited Cyprus in November 1953. He immediately fell in love with the island, partly because of its resemblance, in its landscape, the mixture of populations, and in its traditions, to his childhood summer home in Skala (Urla). His book of poems Imerologio Katastromatos III was inspired by the island, and mostly written there–bringing to an end a period of six or seven years in which Seferis had not produced any poetry. Its original title Cyprus, where it was ordained for me… (a quotation from Euripides’ Helen in which Teucer states that Apollo has decreed that Cyprus shall be his home) made clear the optimistic sense of homecoming Seferis felt on discovering the island. Seferis changed the title in the 1959 edition of his poems.
Politically, Cyprus was entangled in the dispute between the UK, Greece and Turkey over its international status. Over the next few years, Seferis made use of his position in the diplomatic service to strive towards a resolution of the Cyprus dispute, investing a great deal of personal effort and emotion. This was one of the few areas in his life in which he allowed the personal and the political to mix.
The Nobel Prize
In 1963, Seferis was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature "for his eminent lyrical writing, inspired by a deep feeling for the Hellenic world of culture." Seferis was the first Greek to receive the prize (followed later by Odysseas Elytis,who became a Nobel laureate in 1979). His nationality, and the role he had played in the 20th century renaissance of Greek literature and culture, were probably a large contributing factor to the award decision. But in his acceptance speech, Seferis chose to emphasise his own humanist philosophy, concluding: "When on his way to Thebes Oedipus encountered the Sphinx, his answer to its riddle was: 'Man'. That simple word destroyed the monster. We have many monsters to destroy. Let us think of the answer of Oedipus." While Seferis has sometimes been considered a nationalist poet, his 'Hellenism' had more to do with his identifying a unifying strand of humanism in the continuity of Greek culture and literature.
Statement of 1969
In 1967 the repressive nationalist, right-wing Regime of the Colonels took power in Greece after a coup d'état. After two years marked by widespread censorship, political detentions and torture, Seferis took a stand against the regime. On March 28, 1969, he made a statement on the BBC World Service, with copies simultaneously distributed to every newspaper in Athens. In authoritative and absolute terms, he stated "This anomaly must end".
Seferis did not live to see the end of the junta in 1974 as a direct result of Turkey’s invasion of Cyprus, which had itself been prompted by the junta’s attempt to overthrow Cyprus’ President, Archbishop Makarios.
At his funeral, huge crowds followed his coffin through the streets of Athens, singing Mikis Theodorakis’ setting of Seferis’ poem 'Denial' (then banned); he had become a popular hero for his resistance to the regime.
In 1936, Seferis published a translation of T. S. Eliot's The Waste Land.
His house at Pangrati district of central Athens, just next to the Panathinaiko Stadium of Athens, still stands today at Agras st.
There are commemorative blue plaques on two of his London homes – 51 Upper Brook Street, and in Sloane Avenue.
In 1999, there was a dispute over the naming of a street in İzmir Yorgos Seferis Sokagi due to continuing ill-feeling over the Greco-Turkish War in the early 1920s.
In 2004, the band Sigmatropic released "16 Haiku & Other Stories," an album dedicated to and lyrically derived from Seferis' work. Vocalists included recording artists Laetitia Sadier, Alejandro Escovedo, Cat Power, and Robert Wyatt. Seferis' famous stanza from Mythistorema was featured in the Opening Ceremony of the 2004 Athens Olympic Games:
I woke with this marble head in my hands;
It exhausts my elbows and I don't know where to put it down.
It was falling into the dream as I was coming out of the dream.
So our life became one and it will be very difficult for it to separate again.
He is buried at First Cemetery of Athens.
Giorgos Seferis's Works:
Strofi Στροφή (Strophe, 1931)
Sterna Στέρνα (The Cistern, 1932)
Mythistorima Μυθιστόρημα (Mythical narrative, 1935)
Tetradio Gymnasmaton Τετράδιο Γυμνασμάτων (Book of Exercises, 1940)
Imerologio Katastromatos I Ημερολόγιο Καταστρώματος Ι ([Ship's] Log Book I, 1940)
Imerologio Katastromatos II Ημερολόγιο Καταστρώματος ΙΙ (Log Book II, 1944)
Kichli Κίχλη (The Thrush, 1947)
Imerologio Katastromatos III Ημερολόγιο Καταστρώματος ΙΙΙ (Log Book III, 1955)
Tria Kryfa Poiimata Τρία Κρυφά Ποιήματα (Three Secret Poems, 1966)
Dokimes (Essays) 3 vols. (vols 1–2, 3rd ed. (ed. G.P. Savidis) 1974, vol 3 (ed. Dimitri Daskalopoulos) 1992)
Antigrafes (Translations) (1965)
Meres (Days–diaries) (7 vols., published post-mortem, 1975–1990)
Exi nyxtes stin Akropoli (Six Nights on the Acropolis) (published post-mortem, 1974)
Varnavas Kalostefanos. Ta sxediasmata (Varnavas Kalostefanos. The drafts.) (published post-mortem, 2007)
Six Nights on the Acropolis, translated by Susan Matthias (2007).
Complete Poems trans. Edmund Keeley and Philip Sherrard. (1995) London: Anvil Press Poetry. ISBN [English only]
Collected Poems, tr. E. Keeley, P. Sherrard (1981) [Greek and English texts]
A Poet's Journal: Days of 1945–1951 trans. Athan Anagnostopoulos. (1975) London: Harvard University Press. ISBN
On the Greek Style: Selected Essays on Poetry and Hellenism trans. Rex Warner and Th.D. Frangopoulos. (1966) London: Bodley Head, reprinted (1982, 1992, 2000) Limni (Greece): Denise Harvey (Publisher), ISBN 960-7120-03-5
Poems trans. Rex Warner. (1960) London: Bodley Head; Boston and Toronto: Little, Brown and Company.
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Giorgos Seferis Poems
Interval Of Joy
We were happy all that morning Ο God how happy. First the stones the leaves and the flowers shone and then the sun
In The Sea Caves
In the sea caves there's a thirst there's a love there's an ecstasy all hard like shells
The Leaf Of The Poplar
It trembled so, the wind set it sailing it trembled so, how could it not yield to the wind far beyond the sea
Just A Little More
Just a little more And we shall see the almond trees in blossom The marbles shining in the sun The sea, the curling waves.
How can you gather together the thousand fragments of each person? What's wrong with the rudder?
On the secret seashore white like a pigeon we thirsted at noon; but the water was brackish.
Santorini - The Naked Child
Bend if you can to the dark sea forgetting the flute's sound on naked feet that trod your sleep in the other, the sunken life.
In The Manner Of G.S.
On Pelion among the chestnut trees the Centaur's shirt slipped through the leaves to fold around my body
This sun was mine and yours; we shared it. Who's suffering behind the golden silk, who's dying? A woman beating her dry breasts cried out; `Cowards, they've taken my children and torn them to shreds, you've
The angel — three years we waited for him, attention riveted, closely scanning the pines the shore the stars. One with the blade of the plough or the ship's keel
The flowering sea and the mountains in the moon's waning the great stone close to the Barbary figs and the asphodels the jar that refused to go dry at the end of day and the closed bed by the cypress trees and your hair
I have seen in the night
Interval Of Joy
We were happy all that morning
Ο God how happy.
First the stones the leaves and the flowers shone
and then the sun
a huge sun all thorns but so very high in the heavens.
Α Nymph was gathering our cares and hanging them on the trees
a forest of Judas trees.
Cupids and satyrs were singing and playing
and rosy limbs could be glimpsed amid black laurel