Biography of Valmiki
Valmiki (Sanskrit: वाल्मीकि, vālmīki) (during Lord Rama's time) is celebrated as the poet harbinger in Sanskrit literature. He is the author of the epic Ramayana, based on the attribution in the text of the epic itself. He is revered as the Adi Kavi, which means First Poet, for he discovered the first śloka i.e. first verse, which set the base and defined the form to Sanskrit poetry. The Yoga Vasistha is attributed to him. A religious movement called Valmikism is based on Valmiki's teachings as presented in the Ramayana and the Yoga Vasistha.
At least by the 1st century AD, Valmiki's reputation as the father of Sanskrit classical poetry seems to have been legendary. Ashvagosha writes in the Buddhacarita,
"The voice of Valmiki uttered poetry which the great seer Chyavana could not compose."
This particular verse has been speculated to indicate a familial relationship between Valmiki and Chyavana, as implied by the previous and subsequent verses.
Valmiki was the son of Sumali. Maharishi Valmiki was born in a shudra family. His birth name was Ratnakara. But the trust factor of the sources is questionable.When everyone left to travel south Sumali took his son and wife and moved near the bank of Vipasa River (Northern India). The Uttara Khanda tells the story of Valmiki's early life, as an unnamed highway robber who used to rob people before killing them. Other versions name him Valya Meet. Robbing people who passed by was the only source of money for him.
How he became Valmiki
One day Narada Muni was passing by that way when he ran into Ratnakara, who insisted them to give everything he owns, from his clothing to the shoes he was wearing. Narada asked Ratnakara why he was committing this sin. Ratnakara answered that this was the only way to provide food for his family. Narada, then, asked him if his family was part of this sin that he was committing and he told him to go ask his family that same question. Ratnakara tied Narada to a tree to make him stay in that same spot until he was back. When Ratnakara asked his parents if they were with him on the sin that he was doing, they replied that it was his job to take care of them, and that he was only responsible for his own sins. His wife also said the same thing. Ratnakara then returned to Narad Muni and fell to his feet. He told him that he alone was responsible for the sins and asked him to help him get rid of the sins he had committed. Narada told him to repeat Lord Rama's name and that would assist him. Then, after Narada left, Ratnakara went into a deep penance while reciting the Lord's name. Soon, an anthill grew around him. After a long penance, a divine light came upon him and said that he was free from all sins, and that he was to be called "Valmiki" from then (Valmiki meaning 'one who sits in an anthill' in Sanskrit).
Writer of the Ramayana
The Rāmāyaṇa, originally written by Valmiki, consists of 24,000 verses in seven cantos (some say six i.e. excluding the Uttara Ramayana) (kāṇḍas). The Ramayana tells the story of a prince, Rama of Ayodhya, whose wife Sita is abducted by the demon (Rākshasa) king of Lanka, Rāvana. The Valmiki Ramayana is dated variously from 500 BC to 100 BC, or about co-eval with early versions of the Mahabhārata. As with many traditional epics, it has gone through a long process of interpolations and redactions, making it impossible to date accurately.
Notwithstanding the aforesaid, it is pertinent to note that Valmiki is also quoted to be the contemporary of Rama. Rama met Valmiki during his period of exile and had interacted with him. Valmiki had Sita in his hermitage where Kusa and Lava were born to Sita. Valmiki taught Ramayana to Kusa and Lava, who later sang the divine story in Ayodhya during the Aswamedha yaga congregation, to the pleasure of the audience, whereupon, King Rama summoned them to his royal palace. Kusa and Lava sang the story of Rama there, and Rama confirmed that whatever had been sung by these two children was entirely true.
The First Shlok
Valmiki was going to the river Ganges for his daily ablutions. A disciple by the name Bharadwaja was carrying his clothes. On the way, they came across the Tamasa Stream. Looking at the stream, Valmiki said to his disciple, "Look, how clear is this water, like the mind of a good man! I will bathe here today." When he was looking for a suitable place to step into the stream, he saw a Crane (bird) couple mating. Valmiki felt very pleased on seeing the happy birds. Suddenly, hit by an arrow; the male bird died on the spot. Filled by sorrow its mate screamed in agony and died of shock. Valmiki's heart melted at this pitiful sight. He looked around to find out who had shot the bird. He saw a hunter with a bow and arrows, nearby. Valmiki became very angry. His lips opened and he uttered the following words:
"मां निषाद प्रतिष्ठां त्वमगमः शाश्वतीः समाः। यत्क्रौंचमिथुनादेकम् अवधीः काममोहितम्"
"mā niṣāda pratiṣṭhāṁ tvamagamaḥ śāśvatīḥ samāḥ
yat krauñcamithunādekam avadhīḥ kāmamohitam"
"You will find no rest for the long years of Eternity
For you killed a bird in love and unsuspecting"
Emerging spontaneously from his rage and grief, this was the first śloka in Sanskrit literature. Later Valmiki composed the entire Ramayana with the blessings of Lord Brahma in the same meter that issued forth from him as the śloka. Thus this śloka is revered as the "first śloka" in Hindu literature. Valmiki is revered as the first poet, or Adi Kavi, and the Ramayana, the first kavya.
His first disciples to whom he taught the Ramayana were Kusa and Lava, the sons of Rama.
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Tears of sorrow and of suffering flowed from Queen Kausalya's eye, As she saw departing Sita for her blessings drawing nigh, And she clasped the gentle Sits, and she kissed her moistened head, And her tears like summer tempest choked the loving words she said:
Ayodrya, The Righteous City
Rich in royal worth and valour, rich in holy Vedic lore, Dasa-ratha ruled his empire in the happy days of yore, Loved of men in fair Ayodhya, sprung of ancient Solar Race, Royal rishi in his duty, saintly rishi in his grace,
Mithila, And The Breaking Of The Bow
Janak monarch of Videha spake his memage near and far, He shall win my peerless Sita who shall bend my bow of war, Suitors came from farthest regions, warlike princes known to fame, Vainly strove to wield the weapon, left Videha in their shame.
'Dearly loved, devoted Sita! daughter of a royal line, Part we now, for years of wand'ring in the pathless woods is mine, For my father, promise-fettered, to Kaikeyi yields the sway, And she wills her son anointed,-fourteen years doth Rama stray,
Vain her threat and soft entreaty, Ravan held her in his wrath, As the planet Budha captures fair Rohini in his path, By his left hand tremor-shaken, Ravan held her streaming hair, By his right the ruthless Raksha lifted up the fainting fair!
Mandodari's Lament And The Funerals
'Hast thou fallen,' wept in anguish Ravan's first and eldest bride, Mandodari, slender-waisted, Queen of Lanka's state and pride, 'Hast thou fallen, king and consort, more than Gods in warlike might, Slain by man, whom bright Immortals feared to facein dubious fight?
Kausalya's Lament And Rama's Reply
Slow and sad with Saint Vasishtha, with each widowed royal dame, Unto Rama's hermit-cottage ancient Queen Kausalya came, And she saw him clad in wild bark like a hermit stern and high, And an anguish smote her bosom and a tear bedewed her eye.
Friends In Misfortune
Long and loud lamented Rama by his lonesome cottage door, Janasthana's woodlands answered, Panchavati's echoing shore, Long he searched in wood and jungle, mountain crest and pathless plain, Till he reached the Malya mountains stretching to the southern main.
Recital Of The Ramayana
When the silent night was ended, and their pure ablutions done, Joyous went the minstrel brothers, and their lofty lay begun, Rama to the hermit minstrels lent a monarch's willing car, Blended with the simple music dulcet was the lay to hear,
Morning came and duteous Rama to the palace bent his way, For to make his salutation and his due obeisance pay, And he saw his aged father shorn of kingly pomp and pride, And he saw the Queen Kaikeyi sitting by her consort's side.
The Quest For Sita
Past the rains, the marshalled Vanars gathered round Sugriva bold, And unto a gallant chieftain thus the king his purpose told: 'Brave in war and wise in counsel! take ten thousand of my best Seek the hiding-place of Ravan in the regions of the East.
The King's Lament
Is this torturing dream or madness, do my feeble senses fail, O'er my darkened mind and bosom doth a fainting fit prevail? So the stricken monarch pondered and in hushed and silent fear, Looked on her as on a tigress looks the dazed and stricken deer,
The Hermitage Of Atri
With the sandals of his elder Bharat to Ayodhya went, Rama sought for deeper forests on his arduous duty bent, Wandering with his wife and Lakshman slowly sought the hermitage, Where resided saintly Atri, Vedic Bard and ancient sage.
Sita In The Asoka Garden
Crossed the ocean's boundless waters, Hanuman in duty brave, Lighted on the emerald island girded by the sapphire wave, And in tireless quest of Sita searched the margin of the sea, In a dark Asoka garden hid himself within a tree.
The Embassy To Ayodhya
Three nights halting in their journey with their steeds fatigued and spent,
Envoys from Mithila's monarch to Ayodhya's city went,
And by royal mandate bidden stepped within the palace hall.
Where the ancient Dasa-ratha sat with peers and courtiers all,
And with greetings and obeisance spake their message calm and bold,
Softly fell their gentle accents as their happy tale they told.