Biography of Confucius
Confucius ( September 28, 551 – 479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.
The philosophy of Confucius emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity. His followers competed successfully with many other schools during the Hundred Schools of Thought era only to be suppressed in favor of the Legalists during the Qin Dynasty. Following the victory of Han over Chu after the collapse of Qin, Confucius's thoughts received official sanction and were further developed into a system known as Confucianism.
Confucius is traditionally credited with having authored or edited many of the Chinese classic texts including all of the Five Classics, but modern scholars are cautious of attributing specific assertions to Confucius himself. Aphorisms concerning his teachings were compiled in the Analects, but only many years after his death.
Confucius's principles had a basis in common Chinese tradition and belief. He championed strong family loyalty, ancestor worship, respect of elders by their children and of husbands by their wives. He also recommended family as a basis for ideal government. He espoused the well-known principle "Do not do to others what you do not want done to yourself", the Golden Rule.
Confucius is also a traditional deity in Daoism.
Confucius' family and personal name respectively was Kong Qiu ( Kǒng Qiū). His courtesy name was Zhongni ( Zhòngní). In Chinese, he is most often known as Kongzi ( Kǒng Zǐ, literally "Master Kong"). He is also known by the honorific Kong Fuzi ( Kǒng Fūzǐ, literally "Grand Master Kong"). In the Wade–Giles system of romanization, the honorific name is rendered as "K'ung Fu-tzu". The Latinized name "Confucius" is derived from "Kong Fuzi", and was first coined by 16th-century Jesuit missionaries to China, most probably by Matteo Ricci.
Within the Analects, he is often referred to simply as "the Master" ( Zǐ). In 1 AD, Confucius was given his first posthumous name, the "Laudably Declarable Lord Ni" . In 1530, he was declared the "Extremely Sage Departed Teacher" . He is also known separately as the "Great Sage" , "First Teacher" , and "Model Teacher for Ten Thousand Ages" .
According to tradition, three generations before Confucius' time, his ancestors had migrated from the Song state to the Lu state. Confucius was a descendant of the Shang dynasty Kings through the Dukes of Song.
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The moon comes forth, bright in the sky; A lovelier sight to draw my eye Is she, that lady fair.
A Woman Scorning Her Lover
O dear! that artful boy Refuses me a word! But, Sir, I shall enjoy
He lodged us in a spacious house, And plenteous was our fare. But now at every frugal meal There's not a scrap to spare.
Against Frivolous Pursuits
Like splendid robes appear the wings Of the ephemeral fly; And such the pomp of those great men, Which soon in death shall lie!
I climbed the barren mountain, And my gaze swept far and wide For the red-lit eaves of my father's home, And I fancied that he sighed:
A Man's Praise Of His Wife
My path forth from the east gate lay, Where cloud-like moved the girls at play. Numerous are they, as clouds so bright,
A Young Soldier On Service
To the top of that tree-clad hill I go, And towards my father I gaze, Till with my mind's eye his form I espy, And my mind's ear hears how he says ...
A Wife Mourns For Her Husband
The dolichos grows and covers the thorn, O'er the waste is the dragon-plant creeping. The man of my heart is away and I mourn-- What home have I,
An Ode Of Congratulation
The russet pear-tree stands there all alone; How bright the growth of fruit upon it shown!
The Value Of Friendship
The woodmen's blows responsive ring, As on the trees they fall; And when the birds their sweet notes sing,
The sun is ever full and bright, The pale moon waneth night by night. Why should this be?
A Wife's Grief Because Of Her Husband's ...
The falcon swiftly seeks the north, And forest gloom that sent it forth. Since I no more my husband see,
Anxiety Of A Young Lady To Get Married
Ripe, the plums fall from the bough; Only seven-tenths left there now! Ye whose hearts on me are set, Now the time is fortunate!
Moral Lessons From Natural Facts
All true words fly, as from yon reedy marsh The crane rings o'er the wild its screaming harsh. Vainly you try reason in chains to keep;--
He lodged us in a spacious house,
And plenteous was our fare.
But now at every frugal meal
There's not a scrap to spare.
Alas! alas that this good man
Could not go on as he began!