Dayaram

(1777–1853 / Gujarat / India)

Biography of Dayaram

Dayaram poet

Dayaram (Gujarati:દયારામ) was a Gujarati poet. He belongs to middle age or " Madhya-kal " in Gujarati literature. He was known for his literary form called " Garbi " in Gujarat.He was a follower of Pushtimarg of Hindu religion. Dayaram, along with Narsinh Mehta and Meera, is considered as major contributor in Bhakti-kal in Gujarati literature.

Life

Dayaram was born in Chanod in 1777 . By caste this Nagar-Brahmin family’s deity was ‘Hatakeshwar Mahadev’but the family had adapted‘Pushtimarg Sampraday’. Goswami Shri Devkinandanji gave him ‘Mantra daan’and at the age of 8 years he was given his ‘Yagno Paveet Sanskar’. But unfortunately at a very young age he lost both his parents, and the destitute Dayaram had to live with his cousin and uncle consecutively. Dayaram thus studied in the small village school. A little of Sanskrit that he learnt was from his own father, however Dayaram had an excellent voice, a gods gift. Dayaram had an attractive personality but was also well known for his temperament and over scrupulous behavior. At the age of 13 years, the deep rooted ‘Vaishnav’ impressions motivated Dayaram to create 66 lines ‘Paad’ in the raag ‘Dhaval Dhanashri.’

Dayaram did not marry, but considered himself married to ‘Krishna-Bhakti’ and called him self as ‘Daya-Sakhi’ and devoted his whole life in ‘Krishna-Bhakti’. However in the late years of the poets life, he came in contact with a widow named ‘Ratan Sonaran’ who became his disciple and looked after him till his death. His life and literature were also greatly influenced by his pilgrimages all over India and from the major guidance of Shri Iccharam Bhatt. Meeting people of different states-enriched him with various languages and he became proficient in Punjabi, Rajasthani, Urdu, Marathi and Vraj. In one of his poetry Creations he has used 12 languages! Dayaram was also greatly interested in music, he was through in his knowledge of ‘Haveli Sangeet’, and he could also play various instruments. Dayaram’s devotional music was immensely popular and people came from all over, to listen to it.

In the year 1898, after a pilgrimage to Shreenathji the poet fell critically ill, this became his last tour. It was as if the poet knew that his end was coming and he told all his followers not to mourn after him but to celebrate…….This sensitive poet expired in 1853 in Dabhoi.

Contribution

Dayaram was follower of "Sagun Bhakti movement" in Gujarat.So he gave many Garbi describing Krishna as human-being.

Although Dayaram has written in prose a major chunk of his published work is in poetry. The total number of his creations is not known and is still under debate. There are various opinions of Scholars. Kavi Narmad writes; with confirmation with Dayaram’s chief disciple Ranchod , that the poet has written 38 Gujarati books and 37 Hindustani books, where as one other scholar states that the total number of books is 87, where as some others believe that the total Number of the poets creation is almost one and a half lakhs ; where as some believe that he has written 48 books in Gujarati,41 in ‘Vraj’ plus 7000 more in ‘gujarati’,12,000 in ‘Vraj’,200 in Marathi,24 in Punjabi,15 in Sanskrit and 75 in Urdu etc.

Hence such wide writings are impossible to mention here, however they can be roughly divided into 14 parts.

‘Shikshatmak
Siddhantmak
Bhavatmak
Namatmak
Aakhyanatmak
Varnatmak
Shuddha Kavyatmak
Prameyatmak
Rahasyatmak
Prakeerna
Anuvaado
Gadya
Stotratmak
Lakshanatmak

Some of his most famous works are:

(A) Creations pertaining to Vallabh sampraday of Shrimad Vallabhacharya (known as Mahaprabhuji.)
Vallabh Parivar Choryashi Vaishnav Nu Dhol Bhaktiposhan Rasik Vallabh Saat Saiya (Hindi)

(B) Pouranik Aakhiyano
1. Aajamilaakhyan 2. Vakatraasurakhyan 3. Satyabhamaakhyan 4. Okha haran 5. Dashamheela 6. Raas Panchadhyayi

(C) Prakeernasarjan
Narsinh Mehta Ni Hundi
Shadarutuvarnan
Neetibhakti Na Pado

(D) Garbi Sangraha
Dayaram Raas-Sudha
Apart from the above below are a few more of his creations (These do not Include his Garba-Garbi)

Aakalcharitrachandrika
Anubhavmanjari
Aaparadhkshama Stotra
Aashbhapatrani No Vivah
Aashtottar Shaat Krushna Maala
Aloukik Nayak Nayika Bhed Prakran
Kamal Leela
KaalGnanSaransh
Kunwarbai Nu Mameru
Koutuk Ratnavalli
Krishna Virah Na baar Maas
KaaleshKuthar
GuruShishya Samvad
GuruSataKhyan
ChaaturchittaVilaas
ChintaChurnika
Chovees Aavtaar Nu Dhol
TatvaPrabandh
DharmaNeetisaar
NaagnaJeetiVivah
NaamPrabhavBatrishi
NissaDhanta
Patra Leela
Pingal Saar
PushtiPathRahasya
PushtiPaathSaarmanidam
PushtiRoopMaalika
Prabhandh
PrabodhBaavni
PrashnottarMalika
PrashnottarMala
Prashnottari
PremBhakti
PremraasGeeta
BaassoBaavan Vaishnav Nu Dhol
Baal Leela
BrahmanBhaktVeevad
BhaktaVel
BhaktiPoshan
BhaktiVeedhan
Bhagwad Geeta Mahatmaya
BhagwataNuKramanika
Maanprabodh No Kakko
MaanMatiSamvad
MeeraCharitra
MurliLeela
MurkhaLakshanaValli
RasikRanjan
Rasik Vallabh
Rasiyaji Na Maheena
RukmaniVivah
RukmaniSeemant
Roop Leela
VastuVrundDeepika
VinayBatrishi
VignaptiVilas
Vrutasur Nu Aakhyan
Vrundavan Vilas
Shree Krishna Akaal Charitra Chandrika
Shree Krishna Ashtottar Shaat Naam Chintamani
Shree Krishna Upreet
Shree Krishna Naam Chintamani
Shree Krishna Naam Chintamani Maala
Shree Krishna Naam Maahat Maya Manjari
Shree Krishna NaamAmrutDhara
Shree KrishnaNaamaMrutDhvani
Shree Krishna StavanChandrika
Shree Krishna StavanManjari
Shree Krishna Stavan Maadhuri
Shree Krishna StavanaMrut
Shree DushMaskandh Leela Nu Kramanika
Shree Purushottam Panchaang
ShreeMad Bhagwad Geeta
ShreeMad Bhagwad Geeta Mahatmaya
Shree Vishnu Swami Ni Parchari
Shree SheShshayee Nu Dhol
Shaad Rutuvarnan
Saat Saiya
SampradaySaar
SaarShiksha
SaaraVali
Siddhant Saar
Hanuman Garud Samvad
Haridas Mani Mala
Hari Heeradi SwarupTaarat Maya

Other Activity

Dayaran was trained musician. He was expert in playing many musical instruments.

He was also knowing many Indian languages. It is believed that he has written 48 books in Gujarati, 41 in ‘Vraj’ plus 7000 more in ‘gujarati’, 12,000 in ‘Vraj’, 200 in Marathi, 24 in Punjabi, 15 in Sanskrit and 75 in Urdu etc.

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