Fernando Alvarez De Toledo

[3rd Duke of Alba]

Biography of Fernando Alvarez De Toledo

Don Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel, 3rd Duke of Alba (29 October 1507 – 11 December 1582) was a Spanish general and governor of the Spanish Netherlands (1567–1573), nicknamed "the Iron Duke" in the Low Countries because of his harsh and cruel rule there and his role in the execution of his political opponents and the massacre of several cities.

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