Frances Ellen Watkins Harper
Biography of Frances Ellen Watkins Harper
Frances Ellen Watkins Harper was an African American abolitionist and poet. Born free in Baltimore, Maryland, she had a long and prolific career, publishing her first book of poetry at twenty and her first novel, the widely praised Iola Leroy, at age 67.
Early Life and Education
Frances Ellen Watkins was born to free parents in Baltimore, Maryland. After her mother died when she was three years old in 1828, Watkins was orphaned. She was raised by her maternal aunt and uncle. She was educated at the Academy for Negro Youth, a school run by her uncle Rev. William Watkins, who was a civil rights activist. He was a major influence on her life and work. At fourteen, she found work as a seamstress.
Frances Watkins had her first volume of verse, Forest Leaves, published in 1845 (it has been lost). Her second book, Poems on Miscellaneous Subjects, published in 1854, was extremely popular. Over the next few years, it was reprinted numerous times.
In 1859, her story “The Two Offers” was published in Anglo-African Magazine, the first short story to be published by an African American.
She continued with her writing and continued to publish poetry after becoming a political activist. In 1892 she published Iola Leroy, or Shadows Uplifted. One of the first novels by an African-American woman, it sold well and was reviewed widely. As the critic Terry Novak notes, she combined interests in the role of Christian women with "the color line, miscegenation, abolition, reconstruction, education, social responsibility," and women's suffrage.
Teaching and Public Activism
In 1850, Watkins moved to Ohio, where she worked as the first woman teacher at Union Seminary, established by the Ohio Conference of the AME Church. (Union closed in 1863 when the AME Church diverted its funds to purchase Wilberforce University, the first black-owned and operate college.) The school in Wilberforce was run by the Rev. John Brown (not the same as the abolitionist).
In 1853, Watkins joined the American Anti-Slavery Society and became a traveling lecturer for the group. In 1854, Watkins delivered her first anti-slavery speech on “Education and the Elevation of Colored Race”. The success of this speech resulted a two-year lecture tour in Maine for the Anti-Slavery Society. She traveled, lecturing throughout the East and Midwest from 1856 to 1860.
Marriage and Family
At the age of 35, in 1860 she married Fenton Harper, a widower with three children. They had a daughter together in 1862. For a time Frances Harper withdrew from the lecture circuit. But, after her husband died in 1864, she returned to her travels and lecturing.
Frances Watkins Harper was a strong supporter of abolition, prohibition and woman's suffrage, progressive causes linked before and after the American Civil War. She was also active in the Unitarian Church, which supported abolition. She often read her poetry at the public meetings, including the extremely popular "Bury Me in a Free Land".
She was connected with national leaders in suffrage, and in 1866 gave a moving speech before the National Women's Rights Convention, demanding equal rights for all, including black women.
Harper was very involved in black organizations. From 1883 to 1890, she helped organize activities for the National Woman’s Christian Temperance Union. continuing with political activism, she helped organize the National Association of Colored Women in 1896, and was elected vice president in 1897.
Frances Harper died on February 22, 1911.
Legacy and Honors
African-American women's service clubs named themselves in her honor. Across the nation, in cities such as St. Louis, St. Paul, and Pittsburgh, F. E. W. Harper Leagues and Frances E. Harper Women's Christian Temperance Unions thrived well into the twentieth century. There is also a female honors dormitory named in her honor at Morgan State University, in Baltimore, Maryland, commonly referred to as Harper- Tubman, or simply Harper.
Frances Ellen Watkins Harper's Works:
Forest Leaves, verse, 1845
Poems on Miscellaneous Subjects, 1854
"The Two Offers", 1859
Moses: A Story of the Nile, 1869
Sketches of Southern Life, 1872
Light Beyond the Darkness, 1890
The Martyr of Alabama and Other Poems, 1894
Iola Leroy, or Shadows Uplifted, novel, 1892
Idylls of the Bible, 1901
In Memoriam, Wm. McKinley, 1901
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Frances Ellen Watkins Harper Poems
Bury Me In A Free Land
Make me a grave where'er you will, In a lowly plain, or a lofty hill; Make it among earth's humblest graves, But not in a land where men are slaves.
. I remember, well remember, . That dark and dreadful day,
A Grain Of Sand
Do you see this grain of sand Lying loosely in my hand? Do you know to me it brought Just a simple loving thought?
A Double Standard
Do you blame me that I loved him? If when standing all alone I cried for bread a careless world
Two little children sit by my side, I call them Lily and Daffodil; I gaze on them with a mother's pride, One is Edna, the other is Will.
Let The Light Enter
"The dying words of Goethe." "Light! more light! the shadows deepen,
Home, Sweet Home
Sharers of a common country, They had met in deadly strife; Men who should have been as brothers Madly sought each other's life.
God Bless Our Native Land
God bless our native land, Land of the newly free, Oh may she ever stand For truth and liberty.
Death Of The Old Sea King
'Twas a fearful night -- the tempest raved With loud and wrathful pride, The storm-king harnessed his lightning steeds, And rode on the raging tide.
The Slave Mother
Heard you that shriek? It rose So wildly on the air, It seemed as if a burden'd heart Was breaking in despair.
Aunt Chloe's Politics
Of course, I don't know very much About these politics, But I think that some who run 'em, Do mighty ugly tricks.
Thank God For Little Children
Thank God for little children, Bright flowers by earth's wayside, The dancing, joyous lifeboats Upon life's stormy tide.
Learning To Read
Very soon the Yankee teachers Came down and set up school; But, oh! how the Rebs did hate it, - It was agin' their rule.
Fishers Of Men
I had a dream, a varied dream: Before my ravished sight The city of my Lord arose, With all its love and light.
Out In The Cold
Out in the cold mid the dreary night,
Under the eaves of homes so bright:
Snowflakes falling o'er mother's grave
Will no one rescue, no one save?
A child left out in the dark and cold,
A lamb not sheltered in any fold,
Hearing the wolves of hunger bark,
Out in the cold! and out in the dark