King David of Israel
Biography of King David of Israel
David (Hebrew: ד ָ ּ ו ִ ד , ד ָ ּ ו ִ י ד , Modern David Tiberian Dā wîḏ ; ISO 259-3 Dawid; Strong's Daveed; beloved; Arabic: د ا و و د or د ا و د [note A] Dā wū d) was the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel according to the Hebrew Bible and, according to the Gospels of Matthew and Luke, an ancestor of Jesus Christ through both Saint Joseph and Mary. He is depicted as a righteous king, though not without faults, as well as an acclaimed warrior, musician, and poet, traditionally credited for composing many of the psalms contained in the Psalms.
His life is conventionally dated to c.1040–970 BC, his reign over Judah c.1010–1003 BC, and his reign over the United Kingdom of Israel c.1003–970 BC. The Books of Samuel,1 Kings, and 1 Chronicles are the only sources of information on David, although the Tel Dan stele records the existence in the mid-9th century of a Judean royal dynasty called the 'House of David'. David's life is very important to Jewish, Christian and Islamic culture. In Judaism, David, or David HaMelekh, is the King of Israel, and the Jewish people. Jewish tradition maintains that a direct descendant of David will be the Messiah. In Islam, he is known as Dawud, considered to be a prophet and the king of a nation.
David is chosen by God
God withdraws his favour from Saul, king of Israel: It repenteth me that I have set up Saul to be king, for he is turned back from following me, and has not performed my commandments. The prophet Samuel seeks a new king from the sons of Jesse of Bethlehem. Seven of Jesse's sons are led before Samuel, but Samuel says, 'Yahweh has not chosen these.' He then asks, 'Are these all the sons you have? ' and Jesse answers, 'There is still the youngest but he is tending the sheep.' So David is brought to Samuel, and 'Yahweh said (to Samuel) , 'Rise and anoint him; he is the one.''
David at the court of Saul
God sends an evil spirit to torment Saul,1 Samuel 16: 14, and his attendants suggest he send for David, a young warrior famed for his bravery and for his skill with the harp. Saul does so and makes David one of his armor-bearers and 'whenever the spirit from God came upon Saul, David would take his harp and play. Then relief would come to Saul; he would feel better, and the evil spirit would leave him.'
David and Goliath
David hoists the severed head of Goliath by Gustave Doré.
The Israelites, under King Saul, face the Philistines in the Valley of Elah. The boy David is bringing food to his older brothers who are with Saul. He hears the Philistine giant Goliath challenging the Israelites to send their own champion to decide the outcome in single combat. David tells Saul he is prepared to face Goliath and Saul allows him to make the attempt. He is victorious, striking Goliath in the forehead with a stone from his sling. Goliath falls, and David kills him with his own sword and beheads him; the Philistines flee in terror. Saul sends to know the name of the young champion, and David tells him that he is the son of Jesse.
David and Jonathan
Saul makes David a commander over his armies and offers him his daughter Michal in marriage for bringing more than 200 foreskins of the Philistines to him. David is successful in many battles, and his popularity awakes Saul's fears — 'What more can he have but the kingdom? ' By various stratagems the jealous king seeks his death, but the plots only endear David the more to the people, and especially to Saul's son Jonathan, who loves David (1 Samuel 18: 1,2 Samuel 1: 25-26) . Warned by Jonathan, David flees into the wilderness, where he gathers a band of followers and becomes the champion of the oppressed while evading the pursuit of Saul. He accepts the town of Ziklag from the Philistine king Achish of Gath, but continues secretly to champion the Israelites. Achish marches against Saul, but David is excused from the war on the accusation of the Philistine nobles that his loyalty to their cause cannot be trusted.
David becomes king
Jonathan and Saul are killed in battle with the Philistines at Mount Gilboa. David mourns their deaths, especially that of Jonathan, his friend. He goes up to Hebron, where he is anointed king over Judah. In the north, Saul's son Ish-Bosheth becomes king of the tribes of Israel. War ensues between Ish-Bosheth and David, until Ish-Bosheth is murdered. The assassins bring the head of Ish-Bosheth to David hoping for a reward, but David executes them for their crime against the Lord's anointed. Yet with the death of the son of Saul, the elders of Israel come to Hebron and David, who is 30 years old, is anointed King over Israel and Judah.
Jerusalem and the Davidic Covenant
David conquers the Jebusite fortress of Jerusalem, and makes it his capital, and 'Hiram king of Tyre sent messengers to David, and cedar trees, also carpenters and masons who built David a house.' David brings the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem, intending to build a temple, but God, speaking to the prophet Nathan, forbids it, saying the temple must wait for a future generation. God makes a covenant with David, promising that he will establish the house of David eternally: 'Your throne shall be established forever.'
With God's help, David is victorious over his people's enemies. The Philistines are subdued, the Moabites to the east pay tribute, along with Hadadezer of Zobah, from whom David takes gold shields and bronze vessels.
Bathsheba and Uriah the Hittite
David commits adultery with Bathsheba, the wife of Uriah the Hittite. Bathsheba becomes pregnant. David sends for Uriah, who is with the Israelite army at the siege of Rabbah, so that he may lie with his wife and conceal the identity of the child's father. Uriah refuses to do so while his companions are in the field of battle and David sends him back to Joab, the commander, with a message instructing him to abandon Uriah on the battlefield, 'that he may be struck down, and die.' David marries Bathsheba and she bears his child, 'but the thing that David had done displeased the Lord.' The prophet Nathan confronts David, saying: 'Why have you despised the word of God, to do what is evil in his sight? You have smitten Uriah the Hittite with the sword, and have taken his wife to be your wife.' Nathan presents three punishments from God for this sin. First, that the 'sword shall never depart from your house' (2 Samuel 12: 10) second, that 'Before your very eyes I will take your wives and give them to one who is close to you, and he will sleep with your wives in broad daylight.12 You did it in secret, but I will do this thing in broad daylight before all Israel., (2 Samuel 12: 12) and finally, that 'the son born to you will die.'2 Samuel 12: 14 David repents, yet God 'struck the [David's] child... and it became sick... [And] on the seventh day the child died.' David leaves his lamentations, dresses himself, goes to the House of the Lord and worships, and then returns home to eat. His servants ask why he wept when the baby was alive, but ends his mourning when the child dies. David replies: 'While the child was still alive, I fasted and wept. I thought, 'Who knows? The Lord may be gracious to me and let the child live.' But now that he is dead, why should I fast? Can I bring him back again? I will go to him, but he will not return to me.'2 Samuel 12: 22-23
David's son Absalom rebels
David's son Absalom rebels against his father, and they come to battle in the Wood of Ephraim. Absalom is caught by his hair in the branches of an oak and David’s general Joab kills him as he hangs there. When the news of the victory is brought to David, he does not rejoice, but is instead shaken with grief: 'O my son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom! Would I had died instead of you, O Absalom, my son, my son! '
The old age of David
When David has become old and bedridden, Adonijah, his eldest surviving son and natural heir, declares himself king. Bathsheba, David's favorite wife, and Nathan the prophet, fearing that they will be killed by Adonijah, go to David and procure his agreement that Solomon, Bathsheba's son, should sit on the throne. And so the plans of Adonijah collapse, and Solomon becomes king. It is to Solomon that David gives his final instructions, including his promise that the line of Solomon and David will inherit the throne of Judah forever, and his request that Solomon kill his oldest enemies on his behalf. David dies and is buried in the City of David, having ruled forty years over Israel, seven in Hebron and thirty-three in Jerusalem.
Psalms of David
There are 73 chapters of the Book Psalms that are ascribed to King David in association with some events of his life. According to the New Testament, there are other anonymous chapters the said book (2,16,32,69,95, and 110) are also written by him.
King David of Israel Poems
Psalm 23: The Lord Is My Shepherd
1The LORD is my shepherd; I shall not want. 2 He maketh me to lie down in green pastures: he leadeth me beside the still waters.
Psalm 28: Unto Thee Will I Cry, O Lord ...
1 Unto thee will I cry, O LORD my rock; be not silent to me: lest, if thou be silent to me, I become like them that go down into the pit.
Psalm 6: Deliver My Soul
1 O LORD, rebuke me not in thine anger, neither chasten me in thy hot displeasure. 2 Have mercy upon me, O LORD; for I am weak:
The Beauty Of Israel Is Slain
(A lamentation for King Saul, father-in-law of David, and his son Jonathan, friend of David) The beauty of Israel is slain upon thy high places: how are the mighty fallen!
Psalm 5: For Thou, Lord, Wilt Bless Th...
1 Give ear to my words, O LORD, consider my meditation. 2 Hearken unto the voice of my cry,
Psalm 51: Have Mercy Upon Me, O God
(When the prophet Nathan came to David after he had committed adultery with Bathsheba.) 1 Have mercy upon me, O God, according to thy lovingkindness:
Psalm 7: O Lord My God, In Thee Do I P...
1 O LORD my God, in thee do I put my trust: save me from all them that persecute me, and deliver me: 2 Lest he tear my soul like a lion,
Psalm 13: I Have Trusted In Thy Mercy
1 How long wilt thou forget me, O LORD? for ever? how long wilt thou hide thy face from me? 2 How long shall I take counsel in my soul,
Psalm 18: The Lord Is My Rock
(When the LORD delivered him from the hand of all his enemies and from the hand of Saul.) 1I will love thee, O LORD, my strength.
Psalm 22: My God, Why Hast Thou Forsake...
1 My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? why art thou so far from helping me, and from the words of my roaring?
Psalm 8: How Excellent Is Thy Name In ...
1 O LORD, our Lord, how excellent is thy name in all the earth! who hast set thy glory above the heavens.
Psalm 11: For The Righteous Lord Loveth...
1 In the LORD put I my trust: how say ye to my soul, Flee as a bird to your mountain?
Psalm 12: The Words Of The Lord Are Pur...
1 Help, LORD; for the godly man ceaseth; for the faithful fail from among the children of men. 2 They speak vanity every one with his neighbour:
Psalm 30: Thou Hast Turned For Me My Mo...
1 I will extol thee, O LORD; for thou hast lifted me up, and hast not made my foes to rejoice over me.