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Henry Parkes was born to a family of yeoman stock in Warwickshire, England in 1815. Unfortunately, falling wheat prices forced the family to leave the land and seek employment in Birmingham. In 1836 Parkes married Clarinda Varney and they applied for assisted passage to Australia, the death of two of their infant children and a failed business venture influencing their decision. Arriving in Australia, he found work as a farm labourer, but low wages did not appeal! Renewing his old interest in politics, he went to work for the Customs Department in Sydney. Over the next few years he went into business for himself and at one stage owned the Empire newspaper. Through this period be became very influential and played a major role in the cessation of transportation of convicts to Australia. Going bankrupt he retired from the political arena, narrowly escaping fraud charges as his debts exceeded 48 500 pounds (approx. $100 000). He turned to his old friends and with their support was re-elected, becoming a strong supporter of land and educational reform, free trade and immigration. It needs to be pointed out that politicians were not pad for their role in this era of time in Australia. All this time, Parkes left his wife and five children at Werrington (near Penrith). Mrs Parkes was often short of money and constantly besieged by creditors. The property was managed by an insolent and disobedient man and the property went down hill. She indicated her loneliness in a letter ..

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