M.D DINESH NAIR (9 -21 / Thrissur (Kerala) / Vijayawada (A.P) , India)
THE ULTIMATE MYSTERY OF THE END OF EVERYTHING
LET US NOW CONSIDER THE END OF EVERYTHING A PURE PROSE WRITE.
After you were dilated upon the Origin of the Universe and a Brief History of the Earth, I have been asked by a few members to come out with ‘any other stuff of the kind' and I am obliging here by discussing the incredible and perhaps unpleasant phases ahead of us on a time machine powered by information that matters to you and me alike.
SORRY FOR NOT FILLING IN A POETIC VERSION IN BETWEEN THE ANSWERS.
It can be said that humans have a very very short term view of things ahead.We're concerned about the end of summer, the next school year, and maybe even retirement from a job.But these are just a blink of an eye in cosmic terms. Let's really think big, stare forward in time, and think about what the future holds for the Universe. Look forward millions, trillions, and even 1000 trillion years into the future. Let's consider the end of everything which is a mystery.
1.WHEN MAY HUMANITY END ON THE EARTH?
The End of Humanity is likely to happen within 10,000 years from now [Modern humans actually originated in Africa about 200,000 years ago that is B.C 1,97987 ].
Since then, we've gone on to inhabit every single corner of the globe.But this is just temporary. The vast majority of every species that has ever lived on Earth is now extinct.To think that humans can avoid the fate of every other creature is arrogant.Like all life on Earth, our time is limited. How long we will last is a wrong question as our intelligence and civilization Cannot help us much in this regard.
A terrible water and food crisis may eliminate human beings from the earth for ever by any time between AD 4000 and AD 10,000. In the second half of this period man may have to survive by drinking contaminated water like fluids or some form of water and eating reptiles, worms, many insects and even mud or earth.
The life of the primitive man born out of the ape between BC 22,000 and BC 18,000 would be far better in comparison with that snails on in these times!
There are otherwise many natural and 'man'made disasters that could wipe us out.From an asteroid strike to worldwide pandemic; global warming [with the average temperature of the surface of the earth crossing 60 degree Celsius]to a nearby supernova detonation-there are still many more ways we could go for ever.
Perhaps we'll wrap it up in a mass extinction event, such as the one that killed the dinosaurs 65 million years ago, or 'the Great extinction',251 million years ago that killed 70% of land species and 96% of all marine species. In all all possibility humanity will disappear many millions years after which only the very small organisms can continue to survive.
2.WHEN MAY BE THE END OF RELIGIONS OR CONCEPTS OF GOD/GODS?
That will begin very close to the next century.Religions can survive as long as man can move around, visit worship centres and is capable of pulling through his life. But around AD 2700 there will be complete drinking water and food crisis affecting around 80% of human beings all across the globe preceded by the average temperature of the surface earth hovering above 55 degree Celsius which will totally cripple human life.If at all conventional religions still continue to influence the fragile number of the remnant believers to still have faith in God, worship of the supernatural may continue only for a few more years.And it will be unbelievable to see the bishops, the priests, the monks, the evangelists/ sadhus and ordinary faithfuls alike fighting on the street for food and water in these precarious times ahead. Crimes will be committed for possession of a square a meal of any kind obviously eliminating one another and in the process throwing to wind the scriptures and the words of God.
As of today, man worships God/Gods within the normal conditions of his surroundings and when his life conditions get into the grave stage of next to a mere survival akin to that of beasts, his mindset won`t be the same. With the hopes of a never coming' THY KINGDOM' and the futility of the Paradise awaited the new creature will be left with no other option than that of somehow extending this material life within the possible limits. To him God/Gods will be a subject of deep contempt and anger and sooner or later by AD 3000 there will be complete disappearance of the concept of God/Gods in all parts of the globe. That will be the ultimate end of all religions in any form or cult and the concepts of God/Gods etc on the Earth for ever.
The type of creature existing by AD 2700 may not be that willing again like his predecessor of BC 16,000 to go in search of God/Gods.
If at all there is going to be any Substitution for the Human beings on the Earth perhaps another species (much more intelligent than cockroaches, rats etc) will evolve, and out compete with us in our niche. Or maybe we'll engineer our robotic replacements.
But such species can last tens or even hundreds of millions of years.So how can we predict when our number will be up?
There's no way to know, but there's a calculation that can help. It's called the Doomsday Argument, developed in 1983 by astrophysicist Brandon Carter.According to Carter, if you assume that half of the humans who will ever live have already been born, you get approximately 60 billion people.If you assume that another 60 billion are yet to be born, our high population levels only give us another 9,000 years or so. Or more precisely, there's a 95% chance that humanity will have ultimately ended by the year 11,000.
There are other calculations, but they give similar amounts, ranging from a few thousand to less than 90,000 years.That's a long time, but not long enough to appreciate the future the Universe has in store for itself or the horrible type of survival on the ever burning furnace, the Earth..
3.WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE EARTH AND THE SUN?
We have to thank the Sun for giving us energy.Without it, there'd be no life on Earth.It's ironic, then, that the Sun will eventually kill all life on Earth.That's because the Sun is slowly heating up. But we can`t digest it.
One of the most fascinating books about this subject is'The Life and Death of Planet Earth' by Peter Ward and Donald Brownlee.In their book, they chronicle how Sun's energy output is slowly increasing. In as soon as 500 million years, temperatures on Earth will rise to the point that most of the world will be a desert. The largest creatures won't be able to survive anywhere but the relatively cooler poles.
Over the course of the next few billion years, evolution will seem to go reverse.The largest organisms and least heat tolerant animals will die out, leaving hardy insects and bacteria. Finally, it'll be so hot on the surface of the Earth that the oceans will boil away. There'll be no place to hide from the terrible temperatures.Only the organisms that live deep underground will survive, as they have done so already for billions of years.
4.WHEN WILL BE END OF THE EARTH?
It will be after 7.5 billion years from now.
As mentioned above, we exist because of the Sun's good graces.But as our star nears the end of its lifetime, it'll take our planet out as it goes; one way or another. In approximately 5 billion years from now, the Sun will begin the final stage of its life, consuming the last of its hydrogen fuel supply. At that point, gravity will force the Sun to collapse, and only a small amount of hydrogen will remain in a shell wrapped around the star's core. It will then expand into a red giant star, consuming each of the inner planets: first Mercury, then Venus and finally encompassing even the orbit of Earth.
There is a controversy about whether or not a red giant Sun will actually burn up the Earth.In some scenarios, the change in the Sun's density as it expands causes the Earth to spiral out away from the Sun, keeping out of reach. In another scenario, the Sun's outer envelope will enclose the Earth.The additional friction will slow the Earth down, causing it to spiral down into the Sun.
Whatever be the outcome, the Earth will be scorched to a cinder and effectively destroyed 5 billion years from now.
5.WHEN WILL BE THE END OF THE SUN?
It is a question irrelevant for us to answer as we human beings or any other living organism will not be there to see it However it is to happen any time between 7.5 billion and 10 billion years from now.
When the Sun becomes a red giant, that will be only the beginning of the end. With the end of its hydrogen, the Sun will have switched to fusing helium, then carbon, and finally oxygen. At that point, our Sun will lack the gravity to continue the fusion process. It will shut down, and shed its outside layers to form a planetary nebula, such as the ring nebula we can see in the night sky.It'll then settle down to live out the rest of its days as a white dwarf.
It will still retain most of its mass, but have a size no larger than the Earth's diameter. Once yellow-hot with the heat of fusion, the Sun will slowly cool down over time. Eventually, its temperature will match the background temperature of the Universe and it will become a cold black dwarf star an inert chunk of matter floating in the darkness of space.
You know, even the oldest white dwarfs still radiate at several thousand degrees Kelvin, so the Universe hasn't been around long enough for black dwarfs to exist yet.But it may give the Sun another 1 trillion years or so, and it should finally become a cold black dwarf.
6.WHEN WILL BE THE END OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM?
Even though the Sun will have burned out for billions of years from now, the planets that weren't consumed will interestingly remain there.Perhaps even Earth will join that group.Certainly Jupiter, Saturn, the rest of the outer planets and the Kuiper belt objects will remain orbiting for millions of years still.
A recent discovery published in the Journal Science, reported that astronomers had discovered a disk of rapidly rotating metallic material orbiting a white dwarf.Researchers built a simulation where they put hypothetical planets in orbit around a dying star, and found that the star's death wreaked havoc on the stability of a star system.Changes in the mass of a star causes planets to collide, and rearrange their orbits.Some spiral into their star, while others are ejected into interstellar space.
Once all these new gravitational interactions are worked out, all that might remain of our Solar System is the white dwarf remnant of our Sun and the rapidly rotating disk of planetary wreckage surrounding it.Everything else will be lost to interstellar space.
7.WHEN WILL BE THE END OF THE COSMOLOGY?
It is a question you do not understand perhaps.The Universe acts as a natural time machine. Since light moves at the speed of, well, light, we can look at distant objects and see them how they looked in the past.Look to the very ends of the visible Universe, and you see light that was emitted billions of years ago, shortly after the Big Bang.
It's handy, but there's a problem. That mysterious dark energy force, which is accelerating the expansion of the Universe is making the most distant galaxies move faster and faster away from us. Eventually, they will cross an event horizon and appear to be moving away from us faster than the speed of light.At this point, any light emitted by the galaxy will cease to reach us.Any galaxy that crosses this horizon will fade away from view, until its last photon reaches us.All galaxies will disappear from view forever.
According to a new research paper by Lawrence M. Krauss and Robert J. Scherrer, future astronomers [there won`t be any]living 3 trillion years from now will only see our own galaxy when they look into the night sky.
This accelerating expansion has another consequence as well. The cosmic microwave background radiation, which astronomers used to discover evidence of the Big Bang will have faded away too.Not only that, but the abundance of chemicals, which precisely match the amounts theorized for the Big Bang will be hidden by subsequent generations of stars.
And so,3 trillion years from now, there won't be any trace of the Big Bang.No clues for future cosmologists if they happen to exist to recognize that the Universe we live in started from a single point and has been expanding ever since.The Universe will seem static and unchanging at that stage.
8.WHEN WILL BE THE END OF THE GALAXIES?
Do You know? Galaxies collide. All you have to do is look out into space with a telescope and see the fate that awaits our galaxy. In all directions we can see the interactions between the gravity of various galaxies.At first the encounters are violent; galaxies tear at each other, stripping off material and generating huge swaths of star formation.The dormant super massive black holes at their centres spring to live and become active galactic nuclei gobbling up the newly delivered material.
Our future merger partner is barreling towards us right now. It is called Andromeda. In approximately 2 billion years from now, our two galaxies will collide, and then pull apart.Then they'll collide again and again until they settle down into a new, larger galaxy which is named Milkomedia.The twin super massive black holes will orbit one another and eventually merge together into an even more massive black hole.
Our position in the galaxy will then change and we'll probably be pushed out to the outer reaches of the galaxy's halo - at least 100,000 light years from the centre.Since the Sun will still have billions of years left, some future form of life on Earth might be around to watch these events unfold.
The merger process will be completed approximately within 7 billion years from now.That's not the end of the galaxy, though.It will still be an island in space, with stars orbiting a central core. Over a long period of time, though, estimated to be between 10 trillion and 20 trillion years.The galaxy will erode with all the stars escaping into intergalactic space.
9.WHEN WILL BE THE END OF THE STARS?
That is fantastic as the stars will end only after 100 trillion years from now.We can look out into the Milky Way and see stars forming all around us.There is still enough remaining gas and dust in the Milky Way to create whole new generations of stars. But when we look at other galaxies, we can see older, elliptical galaxies which have already used up their free gas and dust. Instead of the bright, hot stars we see in star forming regions, these aging red galaxies are cooling down.
One day there won't be newly forming stars at all. And then one day, the last star will use up the last of its hydrogen fuel, become a red giant and then fade away to a white dwarf. Even the dimmest stars, the cool red dwarfs will use up their fuel - although, it might taken another 10 trillion years or so.They too will turn into black dwarfs.
And so, in about 100 trillion years from now, every star in the Universe, large and small, will be a black dwarf.An inert chunk of matter with the mass of a star, but at the background temperature of the Universe.
10.WHAT WILL BE THE PENULTIMATE END OF THE MATTER?
It will happen after 300 trillion years later from now!
So now we have a Universe with no stars, only cold black dwarfs. There will also be neutron stars and black holes left over from the time where there were stars in the Universe.The Universe will be completely dark.
A future observer might notice the occasional flash, when some object interacts with a black hole.Its matter will spread out into an accretion disk around the black hole.And for a brief period, it will flare up, emitting radiation.But then it too will be added to the mass of the black hole. And everything will go dark again.
Chunks of matter and binary black dwarfs will merge together creating new black holes, and these black holes will be consumed by even larger black holes. It might be that in the far future, all matter will exist in a few, truly massive black holes.
But even if matter escapes this fate, it's doomed eventually. Some theories of physics predict that protons are unstable over long periods of time.They just can't last. Any matter that wasn't consumed by a black hole will start to decay.The protons will turn into radiation, leaving a fine mist of electrons, positrons, neutrinos and radiation to spread out into space.
Theorists anticipate that all protons in the Universe will decay over the course of 1030 trillion years.
11.WHEN WILL BE THE END OF THE BLACK HOLE?
It will be after 1000 trillion years from now.Black holes were thought to be one-way streets.Matter goes in, but it doesn't come out.But famed astrophysicist Stephen Hawking turned that concept on its head with his theory that black holes can evaporate.It's not much, and it's not fast, but black holes release a tiny amount of radiation back into space.
As it releases this radiation, the black hole actually loses mass, finally evaporating away entirely.The amount of radiation increases as the black hole loses mass. It's actually possible that it could generate a final burst of X-rays and gamma rays as it disappears completely. Future observers (who survived their protons decaying) might see the occasional flash in an otherwise dark universe.
And then in about 1000 trillion years, the last black hole will be gone.All that remains will be the radiation emitted.
When the last black hole evaporates, all that will remain in the Universe are photons of radiation, and elementary particles that escaped capture by black holes.The temperature of the entire Universe will reach a final temperature just above absolute zero.
Dark energy may play some future role, continuing the expansion of the Universe, accelerating each of these elementary particles and photons away from each other until they're effectively cut off from one another. No future gravity will bring them together again.
Perhaps there will be another Big Bang someday. Perhaps the Universe is cyclical and the whole process will start up again. The causes thereof will ever be a mystery.
Perhaps the Big Bang won`t repeat and this bleak future of a cold, dead Universe is all that awaits us.It's not happy, but it's awe inspiring to consider the long future ahead, and helps us appreciate the vibrant age we live in today.
12.WHAT SHALL WE DO NOW?
Let us count on our precious times now as we Human beings are to have lived on the Earth only for about 0.2 million years in the maximum in this universe that will have completed 1000 trillion years of existence since the Big Bang.
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Poet's Notes about The Poem
This attempt is yet another humble step made towards entertaining you for a few more minutes. The information is strictly based on scientific articles and observations. Comments on the basis of the MUCH DISCUSSED AND WORN OUT theory of creation by God in B.C 4003 as projected by the Christian and Islamic point of view may please be avoided. Even the concept of Creation as described in the Hinduism that dates back to 4.2 million years ago cannot be a base for defeating a scientific concept validated by evidences.