Chapter 3 Notes - Poem by imani halley
• Evolutionary Psychology- Studies behaviors, emotions and thinking capacities
which allows us as a species to survive.
• Different conditions which may affect the type of person we may turn out to be-
Parents, peers, culture, gender.
Behavior Genetics: Predicting Individual Differences
• Behavior Genetics- study differences among different individuals and weigh the
relative effects of hereditary environment.
• Environment- Every influence other than genetic which may influence us
Genes: Our codes for Life
• Chromosomes- threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the
• DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid, which is a complex molecule containing the
genetic information that makes up the chromosomes
• Genes- Biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes. They are a
part of the DNA which synthesizes the protein. [Provides the code for creating
• Genome - Contains the total genetic material in the organism's chromosomes.
• 23 genes are from your mother's while 23 genes are from your father's side.
There are a total of 46 genes.
• Every person shares about 99.9% of the same DNA with a.1% difference.
• We share 96% of the same information with Chimpanzee.
• Human traits are usually influenced by gene complexes.
• Gene complexes is when many genes work together to form a particular trait.
• Most accurately describes the influence of nature-nurture, since it eliminates other
variables which may be used to influence the results of the experiment.
• Identical Twins- from a single fertilized egg which splits into two. Share the same
• Fraternal Twins- from separate eggs. If a fraternal twin has a disease, the other
twin has a 30% chance of getting that disease. If an identical disease gets it, there
is a 60% chance of the other twin getting it.'
'• If an identical twin gets divorced, the other twin has a 5.5 greater chance of
getting divorced. - there comes the theory that divorce is 50% genetic
• Loehlin and Nicholas discovered that identical twins whose parents treated them
alike were not psychologically more alike than identical twins that were treated
• Jim Lewis and Jim Springer (separated twins) shared similar personalities,
intelligence, heart rate and brain waves, although they were brought up in two
• Bouchard conducts separated twin studies. Has found similarities in taste,
• Bouchard concluded that separated fraternal twins do not show enough
similarities as of those shown by separated identical twins
• Obstacles to such studies include the unplanned reunion of twins, similar
placement by the adoption agency.
• Even if a child is brought up by their adoptee parents and not their biological
parents, they may not share the same similarities among - showing that
environmental factors have a minimal effect on individuals as an influence
• Siblings are rarely alike
• Parents influence children's attitudes, values, manners, faith and politics
• Adopted children are more likely to become attached to their parents since the
adoptive parents undergo testing before they can adopt a child.
• Temperament - an individual's emotional reactivity. Whether a person is placid or
• Certain facts have been revealed from these studies- the most emotionally reactive
newborns tend also to be the most reactive children.
• Children who react to change with pumping legs, arched backs are more likely to
be placid and shy when they grow up. Children who react with smiles will be
• When a child is more impulsive during their pre-school years, they will be more
aggressive as they grow up.
• Identical twins tend to have similar temperament behaviors, showing that
temperament could be contributed to genetics.'
• Heritability - proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to
genes. The heritability of a trait may vary depending on the range of populations
• It refers to the extent to which differences among people are attributed to genes.
• As environments become more similar, heredity becomes more important as a
source of the differences.
Nature and Nurture
• The Biological mechanism of adaptability to one's environment allows diversity
• Genes respond to environmental factors
• Genes are known to be self-regulating due to their adaptability
• Human differences are always said to be genetically as well as environmentally
Gene- Environment Interaction
• Genetically influenced traits evoke significant responses in others (like how a
person may react angrily to a over hyper child, while that same person may react
friendly towards other children)
• Identical twins are more likely to share the same view on different environments
or parental approaches, when they are placed differently. Fraternal twins are more
likely to find variations in the same environment
• The interaction between our genetic predisposition and surrounding environment
helps us shape us who we are.
• Genes affect how people react to and influence each one of us
• Biological appearances have social consequences.
The New Frontier: Molecular Genetics
• Molecular genetics is the subfield of biological that studies the molecular
structure and function of genes.
• The goal of molecular behavior genetics is to find some of the many genes that
influence normal human traits
• At risk populations for certain diseases are found from research such as this
• To bring out the diseased genes, molecular geneticists seek links between certain
genes or chromosome segments and specific disorders.'
'• The process includes taking blood from diseased family members, in which the
disease has been passed down through many generations. They then compare the
blood of the diseased family members and the family members who were not
• Questions ethics as parents are able to decide what type of children they want by
eliminating a certain gender or disease prone child
• The Brave New World depicts a world in which people are genetically selected,
changed to become stupid or smart.
• Robert Wright depicts that in the future, parents will choose their children's traits
• Evolutionary Psychology is the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind,
using principles of natural selection
• Belyaev performed an experiment in which he sought to breed the tamest foxes. It
took him over 30 generations of foxes to achieve this peculiar breed. The major
revealing fact of this study is that certain traits could be selected. Mutations may
also occur within a certain generation; allowing a weaker or either a stronger
adaptability to the environment.
• Our ability to adapt is one of the most important traits humans have in order to
respond to a new environment and survive.
• Steven Pinker believed that our shared human traits such as smiling and crying
were shaped by natural selection.
• The humans' biological similarities arise from our shared human genome.
• There is less than 5% differences (genetic) among humans
• 95% of genetic variations exists within populations
• If comparing the genetic variations for Americans and Africans, the typical
genetic differences between two American villagers or between two Africans are
much greater than the average difference between the two groups
• Richard Lewontin exclaimed that if a worldwide catastrophe eliminated all races
but two, the human species would only suffer a "trivial reduction" in it's genetic
Gender Differences in Sexuality
• Men who preferred attractive physical features which suggests youth and health
• Women preferred resources and social status which suggested mates who would
stick by the woman once the child was born'
• Men and women also have different perspectives on sexual activities, men prefer
multiple partners and more casual sex, while women are more likely to stick with
a single partner and prefer a more stable relationship. Did not matter whether the
males were homosexual or whether the females were lesbians.
Natural Selection and Mating preferences
• Women are more likely pair wisely, since they spend much time nursing a child.
While men are more likely to spread their genes with more partners.
Critiquing the Evolutionary Perspective
• There are three criticisms regarding the evolutionary perspective
1. Evolutionary psychologists start with an effect and work backward to an
2. Evolutionary perspectives underestimates cultural expectations and
3. Allows people not to take a moral or ethical responsibly on sexual
Parents and Peers
• Although identical twins may share a placenta, they may have differences when
one twin may have a lower supply of the richer blood or oxygen supply. A
different placental barrier may also have better protection against viruses
• 2/3s of twins share the same placenta
• Those twins with separate placentas are less similar in their psychological traits
Experience and Brain Development
• Near puberty, a child's unused synapses will weaken and they will lose the roles
that these synapses would have functioned as. Like how an older person finds it
harder to learn a new language than a younger child. Synapses which we use
frequently are strengthened during this time.
• Babies who were massaged, were more likely to develop faster neurologically and
gain more weight
• William Greenough discovered the weakening process of unused synapses
through his experiment with rats.
• Mark Rosenzweig and David Krech noticed that rats which were put in a social
environment developed their brains through a stronger cerebellum cortex while
rats placed in isolation did not experience the same growth.
Blaming Parents? '
'• Freudian psychiatry and extreme environmentalism blames a child's failures and
successes on the parents.
• Parents are more associated with influenced a child's manners and
• Peter Neubauer and Alexander Neubauer illustrate how, with hindsight, we may
inappropriately credit or blame our parents.
• Abused become abusive and neglected become neglectful.
• Environmental settings and parental care only result in 10% of change in
• Children are more likely to conform in order to fit into certain groups
• They also select other children who share the same interests
• The parents role is more important when it comes to education, responsibility.
Charity, orderliness, discipline and interaction
• Peers are more influential when it comes to cooperatitive skills, styles of
interaction as well as the importance placed on popularity.
• When parents choose the environment for their children, they hold influence over
the peer settings.
• Habits such as smoking is most likely to be learned from peers
• Culture is the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values and traditions shared by
a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
• Culture and our capacity for language lets us preserve life saving techniques
which we then pass to other generations, for their benefit
• Allows more diversity
Variation across cultures
• Each culture has their own accepted and expected behaviors
• Norms- rules and expected behaviors
• Cultural shock may be experienced by those who come from different cultures
Variation over time
• The speed at which cultural changes take place over time is much faster than the
slow pace of evolutionary changes in the human gene pool
Culture and Self
• Collectivism gives priority to the goals of one's group rather than the individual
• Western nations are more likely to stress individualism
• Signs of individualism includes
1. Casual or temporary relationships
2. Identity is based on self-esteem, personal goals, personal rights and
• Collectivism is more compromised of interdependence, tradition and harmony.
• Relationships in collectivism are enduring
• Morality is based on one's duty to society
• Identity is based on group goals and commitments
Culture and Child rearing
• The child bearing in Collectivist nations tend to stress more of a family sense and
tend to be more focused on emotional closeness
• Individualist nations tend to stress independence, which is reflected in their child
Developmental similarities across groups
• Humans share many similarities including genetics, life cycle, capacity for
language, biological needs and the sense of wanting to belong
• Similar behaviors could be predicted from a group of individuals due to their
Gender similarities and Differences
• Both males and females share over 46 of the same chromosomes.
• Women have 70% more fat,40% less muscle and are over 5 inches shorter
• Women also hit puberty 2 years earlier and outlive men
• Women are more likely to have depression, express emotions more freely
• 10 times more the risk at eating disorders
• Men are more likely to commit suicide, suffer alcoholism, have antisocial
personality disorder, hyperactivity, autism and color blindness
Gender and Aggression
• Men are more likely to act aggressive than women
• It is more physical than verbal
• Males are also more likely to commit crimes than women
• Men are more likely to support violent behaviors and war
Gender and Social Power
• Men are more likely to autocratic, domineering leaders
• Women are more likely to be democratic
• Women are more likely to show support while men show their own opinions
• Middle age women become more assertive while middle aged men more
Gender and Social Connectedness
• Women are more concerned about making connections with others than men
• They are more likely to befriend others, be caring and responsible for others
• Bonds between women tend to be more stronger than bonds between men
• Men emphasize more freedom and self reliance
• Boys typically play in large groups with an activity focus and little intimate
• Girls usually play in small groups, often with one friend.
• Male answer syndrome—men are more likely than women to give wrong answers
rather than admit they are ignorant.
The Nature of Gender
• The sex of a child is determined by the 23
• The mother contributes the X chromosome
• The father contributes either the X or Y chromosome
• XX means that it is a girl
• XY means that it will be a boy
• Y chromosome holds the production of the hormone testosterone, it triggers the
growth of external male sex organs in the 7
• Gender roles are defined as our expectations about the way men and women
behave. Culture has a big effect on designating a certain gender role
• Gender roles differ a lot from nation to nation
Gender and Child Rearing
• Gender identity is the sense of being male or female
• Gender - typing is when some individuals fit into their distinct traditional roles
• Social Learning theory - theory that we lean social behavior by observing and
imitating and by being rewarded or punished.
• Even if a family discourages gender typing, the child will still turn to their
traditional roles. '
'• Gender Schema theory is the theory that children learn from their cultures a
concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior
• Carol Lynn Martin and Diane Ruble explained that children were gender
detectives; they find which type or role they must fulfill themselves.
Reflections on Nature and Nurture
• There are many influences which contribute individual development
• - Social - cultural influences
1. parental influences
2. peer influences
3. cultural individualism or collectivism
4. Cultural gender norms
• Biological Influences
1. shared human genome
2. individual genetic variations
3. prenatal environment
4. sex related genes, hormones and physiology
• Psychological influences
1. gene environment interaction
2. neurological effect of early experiences
3. responses evoked by our own temperament, gender, etc
4. beliefs, feeling and expectations
• Gender roles merely shape us'
Comments about Chapter 3 Notes by imani halley
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