Major Healthy Ageing Issues

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Hello, my name is Wendell Belden I am not a Doctor but a citizen scientist and nothing herein attempts to treat or cure any disease, I am just a retired reasonably healthy man of seventy-nine years that wants to stay that way for as long as possible. I spent a great deal of time researching and compiling the following and am posting it here in hopes of helping others. My first draft was completed in 2016, I am amazed at the advances in this science since then as our knowledge has moved much deeper into our systems and greatly reduced the number of interventions necessary while improving their efficacy! !

If you have any suggestions, corrections or additional information on this subject please send it to me at: wdbelden@hotmail.com

Thanks


INTRODUCTION

First of all aging is an active continuation of genetically programmed development; it is not just wearing out or the accumulation of deleterious substances in our bodies. An individual's health is the outcome of two competing factors: environmental (internal and external)damage and one's ability to cope with that damage. Environmental damage is regarded as a random process, but the ability to recover from that damage depends on an individual's assets, such as genetic endowment, health status, living conditions, access to health care, and most importantly the degree of daily attention one pays to their health.

The 2014 International Conference on Aging and Disease, was held in Beijing. Think of that, not just the Americas and Europe but also Asia (where most of us are)are all working together on this. At that Conference degenerative aging processes and related diseases where determined to be the gravest challenge to global public health. They cause the largest proportion of disability and mortality worldwide. Thus, the weight of the problem of aging-related degeneration and the urgent need for solutions was acknowledged by the conference participants. Beyond the description of the problem, the conference presented a wide array of strategies to tackle it. It emphasized the paramount strategy of connecting the study of aging and aging-related diseases, no longer just exclusively addressing individual diseases and symptoms, but relating them to their unifying, underlying determinative factors - the degenerative processes of aging. Which processes make so many of us susceptible to cancer, diabetes, heart and other organ failures and diseases! ! By addressing the underlying causes of aging we can greatly reduce all of these and extend our productive health spans. As odd as this may sound, think of how odd vaccines used to sound.
And this will eventually lead to a smaller more civilized world population just as overall modernization has during the last century.


The Issues


Loss of Telomeres
Diminished Autophagy
Reduced Endocrine System (HPA axis) Function
Declining Mitochondrial Metabolism and Oxidative Stress Caused by Diminished Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Levels (NMN)



DEFINITIONS/REMEDIES

Telomeres protect the ends of chromosomes from sticking to each other. They also protect genetic information during cell division because a short piece of each chromosome is lost every time DNA is replicated. Cells use a special enzyme called telomerase to keep dividing, which lengthens their telomeres. Each time a cell divides and replicates, the DNA at the end of telomeres shortens. Since cell division happens throughout life, telomeres get shorter and shorter as we age. When the telomeres run out, the cell becomes inactive or dies, which leads to our disease and death.

Remedy: HETA-OX is an Optimized Extract High Efficacy Telomerase Activator superior in efficacy to other presently available agents. It's telomerase Activation Capacity in comparison to high dose cycloastragenol demonstrated higher efficacy, and Anti-Aging Capacity. It is available here:

True Life Research's HETA-OX, an Optimized Extract High Efficacy Telomerase Activator

Autophagy:

By sensing the metabolic byproducts that cause cell damage (called reactive oxygen species ROS, protein p62 activates to induce autophagy, or self cleaning.Specifically, p62 proteins remove damaged cells that have accumulated in our bodies.

Autophagy allows the orderly degradation and recycling of unnecessary or dysfunctional cellular components. In macroautophagy, targeted cytoplasmic constituents are isolated from the rest of the cell within a double-membraned vesicle known as an autophagosome. The autophagosome eventually fuses with lysosomes and the contents are degraded and recycled.

Autophagy also contributes to the maintenance of intracellular homeostasis (good health) in most cells of cardiovascular origin, including cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and arterial smooth muscle cells. Mitophagy is an autophagic response that specifically targets damaged, and hence potentially cytotoxic, mitochondria. As these organelles occupy a critical position in the bioenergetics of the cardiovascular system, mitophagy is particularly important for cardiovascular homeostasis in health and disease.

As we age this process becomes less and less effective and more and more toxic protein aggregates accumulate in our systems effecting more and more healthy cells and causing increasingly damaging inflammation, which makes us extremely more susceptible to all kinds of diseases.

REMEDY:

Gynostemma (Jiaogulan)
Known as the "herb of immortality" in China, the species Gynostemma pentaphyllum is a climbing perennial vine in the same family as cucumbers.

MODES OF ACTION:
1. Anti-aging through AMPK activation
Technically known as 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, but commonly abbreviated AMPK.
2. Antioxidants
Boosts internal production of superoxide dismutase (SOD) .
3. Lowers blood sugar
4. Weight loss
5. Liver support

Is widely available as a Tea but the Tea would not provide enough of the nutrient, it is also available as a supplement at Amazon

Trehalose kickstarts autophagy by glucose inhibition independently of the mTOR pathway.It also clears alpha-synuclein, polyglutamate, amyloid beta 40, amyloid beta 42, and tau proteins such as those seen in Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Is also available at Amazon.

A probiotic including Saccharomyces boulardii should be taken with this to avoid any C.difficile problems. Lane Labs Flora 3 at Amazon will do.



Reduced Endocrine System (HPA {hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenals} axis)Function:

The endocrine system consists of a group of glands and organs that regulate and control various body functions by producing and secreting hormones. Hormones are chemical substances that affect the activity of another part of the body. In essence, hormones serve as messengers, controlling and coordinating activities throughout the body.

Levels of most hormones decrease with aging, but some hormones remain at levels typical of those in younger adults, and some even increase. Even when hormone levels do not decline, endocrine function generally declines with age because hormone receptors become less sensitive.
Some hormones that decrease include
Estrogen (in women)
Testosterone (in men)
Growth hormone
Melatonin

DHEA is a hormone that is a precursor to other hormones, such as estrogen and testosterone. DHEA levels tend to decline with stress as well as with age.DHEA increases the production of collagen, making skin appear smoother and younger looking.
Human growth hormone (HGH)is the real "fountain of youth." The good news is that you produce it on your own via your pituitary gland. The bad news is that your body decreases its production of the hormone as you age

If you experience prolonged chronic stress, your adrenal glands tell your body to conserve energy. Your metabolism slows down, you feel tired and want to sleep more and may experience more food cravings.

REMEDIES:

Adrenal Glandulars:

These are specific adrenal supplements that are made up of adrenal gland tissue from either porcine or bovine (pig or cow) .Some of these supplements use the whole adrenal gland while others only use the outer cortex.
This can be an excellent overall supplement to help restore adrenal function as the glandulars are rich in mitochondrial support nutrients such as CoQ10, L carnitine, glutathione precursers, B vitamins and amino acids necessary for good adrenal function.

Adaptogens:

Are a unique class of healing plants that help balance, restore and protect the body. Adaptogens are truly remarkable in that the chemicals they contain help to normalize adrenal function. They calm and nourish the adrenal glands and support the processes that are controlled by the adrenals—from blood sugar and immune system regulation, to hormones and blood pressure. While some adaptogens can work quickly, their actions tend to be subtler, with benefits growing with regular usage. Sophora flavescens is an example of these plants.
Perhaps the best support comes from a combination of adaptogens and glandulars like this:

Advanced Orthomolecular Research AOR Ortho Adaptat Amazon

Pregnenolone:
As is the case with the steroid-hormone precursor DHEA, pregnenolone levels decline with age. Many physicians and scientists believe that restoration of pregnenolone to youthful levels is an important step in the treatment of aging and symptoms of aging. Pregnenolone may be one of the most important hormones because it seems to have a balancing effect. It is a precursor to many other hormones and may be able to bring the levels of other hormones up or down as needed. Pregnenolone is the precursor from which nearly all other steroid hormones are made, including DHEA, progesterone, testosterone, estrogens, and cortisol.
Pregnenolone appears to be the most potent memory enhancer yet reported in animals, it has been found to be 100 times more effective for memory enhancement than other steroids or steroid-precursors.Pregnenolone has been reported to not only make people smarter but happier by stress reduction and increased resistance to effects of stress, improvement of mood and energy, reduced symptoms of PMS and menopause, improved immunity, and repair of myelin sheaths.

Pregnenolone is available at Amazon the sublingual drops seem to be the best value.



Declining Mitochondrial Metabolism and Oxidative Stress Caused by Diminished Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Levels (NMN)

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is one of the most important and interesting molecules in the body. It is required for over five hundred enzymatic reactions and plays key roles in the regulation of almost all major biological processes.Much of the renewed interest in NAD over the last decade can be attributed to sirtuins, a family of NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases (SIRT1-7) . Sirtuins have been shown to play a major regulatory role in almost all cellular functions. At the physiological level, sirtuins impact inflammation, cell growth, circadian rhythm, energy metabolism, neuronal function, and stress resistance.
By modulating NAD+-sensing enzymes, NAD+ controls hundreds of key processes from energy metabolism to cell survival, rising and falling depending on food intake, exercise, and the time of day. NAD+ levels steadily decline with age, resulting in altered metabolism and increased disease susceptibility. Restoration of NAD+ levels increasesthe body's resilience, not just to one disease, but to many, thereby extending healthy human lifespan.

A decline in mitochondria function contributes to ageing in particular, to specific aspects of the ageing process including cellular senescence, chronic inflammation and the age-dependent decline in stem cell activity and organ function.
Ageing is generally accompanied by a decline in activity of mitochondrial enzymes (e.g. citrate synthase) , a decrease in respiratory capacity per mitochondria (e.g. substrate-dependent oxygen consumption) , an increase in ROS production and a reduced phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery time

Ageing is also accompanied by an accelerated rate of muscle loss (sarcopenia) , both in terms of mass and activity (e.g. strength) . Although muscle strength over a lifetime declines at an average rate of roughly 1 % per year, for patients in their 70's, that rate of decline can increase 2 to 4-fold.

Age-related muscle wastage is linked to vascular ageing:

During the ageing process, the smallest blood vessels begin to shrink and die, leading to reduced blood flow and less oxygen reaching organs and tissues. Vascular ageing leads to a myriad of conditions, including vascular diseases, neurological conditions, muscle loss, impaired wound healing, and frailty. The loss of blood supply to organs and tissues causes the build-up of toxins, low oxygen levels, and the loss of critical nutrients and exercise loses its effectiveness against sarcopenia, blood flow declines as the result of endothelial cells losing a protein known as SIRT1 this loss of SIRT1 is caused by the decline of NAD+ endothelial cells. Lacking SIRT1 proteins are desensitized to growth factor signaling from muscles and do not respond to it. This explains why age-related loss of SIRT1 leads to muscle wastage and the decline of blood vessels.NMN is a compound that the body converts into NAD+ as part of the NAD salvageing pathway. NMN plus sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) (H2S) , almost doubles the effect of NMN, AND reverses this ageing process!

One of the hallmarks of ageing is the development of a low-grade, chronic, sterile inflammatory state often deemed ‘inflammageing'. The development of this state, characterized in part by increased circulating inflammatory biomarkers such as IL-6 and C-reactive protein, is a known risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality in the elderly.

Adult stem cells (SCs)are essential for tissue maintenance and regeneration yet are susceptible to senescence(death)during ageing. Treatment with the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide riboside (NR) , (NMN becomes NR to get into cells)induces the mitochondrial unfolded protein response and synthesis of prohibitin proteins, which rejuvenates adult stem cells.

The coupling of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)breakdown and protein deacylation is a unique feature of the family of proteins called ‘sirtuins.' This intimate connection between NAD+ and sirtuins has an ancient origin and provides a mechanistic foundation that translates the regulation of energy metabolism into ageing and longevity control in diverse organisms.The tight connection between NAD+ and sirtuins is regulated at several different levels, adding further complexity to their coordination in metabolic and ageing/longevity control. Interestingly, it has been demonstrated that NAD+ availability decreases with age, reducing sirtuin activities and affecting the communication between the nucleus and mitochondria at a cellular level and between the hypothalamus and adipose tissue at a systemic level.

REMEDY:

Nicotinamide (NM) , rather than nicotinic acid, is the major substrate for NAD biosynthesis in mammals (27) . Instead of being deamidated, nicotinamide is converted into NMN by nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) . NMN is then directly synthesized into NAD by nicotinamide/nicotinic acid mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (Nmnat)(28
Within our cells, the NAD+ pool helps to breakdown sugars from the food we eat into energy. It is also an absolute requirement for the function of SIRTUINS, our "longevity-genes" that promotes overall health and wellness by regulating normal cell metabolism and gene silencing.
NAD levels decline over time because NAD+ is used and CONSUMED as a substrate by SIRTUINS, DNA-Repair enzymes and aggressively by another enzyme called CD38 for calcium balancing and immune function response. NAD+ also binds to another enzyme called DBC1, thereby reducing its interference with the normal DNA-Repair process. NAD+ acts both as a substrate for, and as a promoter of the DNA-Repair process. DNA-Repair is critical for protecting the integrity genome as an anti-ageing response against mutations.

Amazon has the best nicotinamide product for the best price I could find by "biophix"

NMN's effect is almost doubled by H2S which is available by supplementation with NAC which is desulfurated to generate hydrogen sulfide, H2S.
NAC is available in powder or capsule form at:

BulkSupplements as N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine-(NAC) Powder-
Of course, there are many, many other health issues including those specific to our individual situations however, these are the underlying causes of most of them (according to our current knowledge) so addressing them should have the greatest effect on our health and life spans.

Minor yet important supplements:
Magnesium at:
Amazon as Magnesium-Bisglycinate-Elemental-
Niacin supplement only if your multivitamin lacks it or vitamin B3, as it is a very important nutrient for the elderly. Fish oil, calcium, SAMe for osteoarthritis, and probiotics with prebiotics. To name a few.

Age well my friends,

Wendell

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