Mat Model Of Educational Leadership Poem by Matloob Bokhari

Mat Model Of Educational Leadership



This paper explores to know what leadership skills a principal uses in implementing the innovations and reforms in the imperialistic and colonial education system. The paper is based on a case study of a school - -Public School Bhatiot (pseudonym) . The paper recommends Mat Model of Educational Leadership. This style of educational leadership is process -oriented as well as result- oriented. The principal created in the school happy ethos and disciplined learning environment. He maintained a careful balance between result oriented and learning oriented education system to bring in a new change in the colonial system of education.

The methodology is based on a case study, using tools of observation and interview. The researcher analytically observed the working environments of various academic institutions in Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and England and studied the leadership styles of their principals. Also, the researcher discussed with various educationists the problems of imperialistic and colonial education system to ascertain their views.

The paper is organized in five parts. The first part is the introduction. The second part focuses on various concepts and approaches of leadership. The third part contains the interviews of principal and teachers. The fourth part contains recommendations of the study. The paper recommends that the latest developments in policy, research, theory and practice in school management should be analyzed and taught to our principals as well as teachers. Finally, the fifth part draws conclusion. At the end, references are given. This research suggests that liberal, democratic reforms in an imperialistic and colonial system of education are not free of problems; as, it is too difficult to change the mental models. The scope of the study is limited only to the role of principal and has not discussed the roles of policy makers and political leaders.

Part: 1


Various initiatives over the past few years express a move by our education authorities to give more responsibility and authority to schools, but they are doing all this without practically acknowledging the school as the major unit of change in the education system. The paper argues that, in the culture and climate of domination and statuesque, the schools have never been given the opportunity to develop into vital places of learning and sites of free inquiry and reflective practice. If the education policy makers want to devolve greater responsibilities to schools; then, before teaching the students, they should, preferably, teach the teachers and, more importantly, the principals who are the main "change agents." The study assumes that ourconcepts of educational leadership need to be redefinedkeeping in view the requirements of modern times, makinga clear shift away from the traditional hierarchical andbureaucratic control of the schools.

We are currently in the age of unprecedented change. Almost, every thing is in the flux of constant change and the rate of change is accelerating. No one has been so dramatically affected as the school principal.The present role of principal is different from what they had been in the past. Principal is expected to be the most important change agent for an academic institution. This change from the traditional role of principal calls for a great deal of knowledge and skills not previously expected. The democratic society wants innovation and change in approaches to teaching and learning to produce independent and confident citizens of a democratic society.For the purpose of institutional improvement, it is essential that educational leaders should take central role in the development of their schools. Hornby, M. (1993)argues that, without a doubt, it is an effective leader, which makes the difference between confusion, inefficiency and demoralization and a well-motivated and efficient team. The principal needs to have good administrative and organizational skills as well as the ability to manage the people effectively. He should establish a safe and happy ethos in the school, and encourage the professional development of teachers. He must be firm to make decisions but also know when and how to be flexible.

Part: 11


Leadership in Historical Perspective

Leadership is one of the world's oldest preoccupations. Library shelves abound with books on the subject of leadership. This subject has been a matter of debate and discussion ever since Eve gave birth to her two sons. Socrates is the earliest known sage who describing the art of leadership argued that a leader must have imagination to originate plans, practical sense and energy to carry them through. He must be observant, shrewd, kindly and cruel.In the Iliad, Homer emphasized higher, transcendental goals: "He serves me most, who serves his country best" (book X, line 201 cited in Bass, M.1990) . The Odyssey advises leaders to maintain their social distance: "The leader, mingling with the vulgar host, is in the common mass of matter lost" (book III, line 297 cited in Bass, M.1990) . Greek's concepts of leadership were exemplified by the heroes in Homer's Iliad. Ajax symbolized inspirational leadership and law and order. Other qualities that the Greeks admired and thought were needed (and sometimes wanting)in heroic leaders were (1)justice and judgment (Agamemnon) , (2)wisdom and counsel (Nestor) , (3)shrewdness and cunning (Odysseus) , and (4)valor and activism (Achilles)(see Sarachek,1968 cited in Bass, M.1990) .Later, Greek philosophers; such as Plato in the Republic looked at the requirements for the ideal leader of the ideal state (the philosopher king) . The leader was to be the most important element of good government, educated to rule with order and reason.He first opened the debate in The Republic on whether leaders were born or created and this debate is continued unabated till to date. In Politics, Aristotle was disturbed by the lack of virtue among those who wanted to be leaders. He pointed to the need to educate youths for such leadership (Bass, M.1990) .

The Virtuous Leaders of Humanity

In the annals of mankind, some leaders had been real blessings to mankind, while others had led their people to disaster. Hazrat Ibrahim (AS) , Hazrat Musa (AS) , Hazrat Daud (AS) , Hazrat Sulaman (AS) , Hazrat Isa (AS)and Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH.)were the supreme leaders of humanity who clarified, instructed and directed the people, announcing rewards for compliance and punishment for disobedience to the heavenly laws and rules. Similarly, Pharoah, Namrud and Yazid were the ferocious coercive leaders who demanded absolute compliance.

True spirituality develops only when a leader is engaged in the struggle to transform unjust social, political, and economic structures. Socrates, Hazrat Musa (AS) ,Hazrat Isa (AS)and Hazrat Imam Hussain (AS)were the earliest and the greatest champions of human rights, as when the world was worshipping the kings and queens, they raised their voices against the oppressive rulers to liberate themarginalized people and paid with their lives for standing up against the oppressivepowers. These champions of human rights wrote with their blood that great moments in the history are not those when the great empires were built by the emperors but when the great liberators sacrificed their lives to defend the finest values of life.

Allah the Almighty has created this whole universe on the basis of love and has demanded of the people that they should build up their lives on the foundation of truth, to make truthful and straight dealing a practice of their lives and should give place to truth only in their talks and dealings. The firm pillar of a Muslim's character is straight dealing. Hazrat Ayesha (RA)narrates, "Allah‘s Messenger did not hate anything as strongly as he hated falsehood" (Ahmed cited in Alghazali's book Muslim's Character, p.53) . Another narration by her states that "For the Messenger of Allah the Almighty, falsehood was the worst habit in a person (cited in Alghazali's book Muslim's Character, p.53) . All the evils can be found in a momin except dishonesty and falsehood. The Messenger of Allah the Almighty said that a Muslim can be coward, miser but cannot be a liar (qtd in Alghazali's book Muslim's Character, .p.55) . Abu Usama has narrated that once the messenger of Allah the Almighty went among his companions leaning on a cane and his companions stood up. The prophet said: "Do not stand up. Don't adopt the system of these Non-Arabs who stand up to pay respect to one anther" (p.25, ibid) .

Before attaining prophet hood, Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH)was known among the people as sadiq (truthful)and ameen (trustworthy) . Prior to prophet hood and going to Pharaoh's darbar, the trustworthiness of Hazrat Musa (AS)was tested when he fetched water for the flocks of two daughters of the good old man. Hazrat Musa (AS)helped them, respected their womanhood and treated them in a decent and gentlemanly way. So, he watered their flocks for them. Afterwards, one of the damsels came back to him, walking bashfully. She said: "My father invites you that he may reward you for having watered our flocks for us." So, when he came to their father and narrated the story, the father said: "Do not fear; (well)have you escaped from the unjust people? " In reply, one of the damsels said: "O my (dear)father, I engaged him on wages; truly the best of men for you to employ is (the man)who is strong and trusty" (Qasas: 24-26, cited in ibid) .

The fact is that merely excellences of education or experience don't make a person more suitable for the office. Hazrat Yusaf (AS)(Joseph)was the living example of righteousness and virtuousness. Hazrat Yusaf (AS)said: "Entrust to me the treasures of the country. Verily, I am protector and learned" (see Alghazali's book Muslim's Character, p.75) .Furthermore, a leader should be ambitious, but not a slayer. Ambition is the name of the desire for reaching the high pinnacle and achieving it. Hazrat Sulaiman (AS)prayed, "My Lord! Forgive me and bestow on me sovereignty; such as shall not belong to any after me. Surely, You are the Bestower" (Sad: 36. cited in Alghazali's book Muslim's Character, p.167) .

Definitions of Leadership

Prior to 1949, studies of leadership were based on an attempt to identify the traits that a leader possesses. According to the "Great Man" theory, "leaders are born and not made." This was the belief of the ancient Greeks and Romans. The "Great Man" lost much of its acceptability, as the researchers now tried to identify the physical, mental and personality traits of various leaders. The traits related to leadership ability are: physical (such as energy, appearance and height): intelligence ability traits (such as creative imagination, power of thinking and strong memory): personality traits; such as adaptability, aggressiveness, enthusiasm and self confidence; task related characteristics; such as drive, persistence and initiative and finally social characteristics; such as cooperativeness, inter personal skills and administrative ability.

Lakomski, G. (2001)asserts that the prime mover of change is leader, who transforms the current stagnating culture into a productive one (p.68) . Hornby, M. (1993)points out that an effective leader makes the difference between confusion, inefficiency and demoralization and a well-motivated and efficient team (p.22) .

There is an ancient Chinese proverb which goes something like 'If you are planning for one year, plant rice. If you are planning for ten years, plant trees. If you are planning for hundred years, plant people (Cooper,2002) . Those nations who plant people, they produce people who have vision. The people, who can communicate that vision and can make things happen. George Bernard Shah described these individuals perfectly well in ‘Mrs. Warren's Profession' stating, "People are always blaming their circumstances for what they are. I don't believe in circumstances. The people who get on in this world are the people who get up and look for the circumstances they want, and if they cannot find them, make them."
Malcolm Hornby in his book ‘Managing School Today' vol-2, published in 1993 writes, "By leadership, I mean the ability to influence the thoughts or behaviour of others. Not for the purpose of manipulation, but in an attempt to achieve mutual benefit." Hegel (1830/1971)in his book ‘Philosophy of Mind' claims that by first serving as a follower, a leader subsequently can best understand his followers. Hegel thought that this understanding is a paramount requirement for effective leadership.
In the list of competences of National Educational Assessment Centre established at Oxford Brookes University, leadership is defined as "The ability to get others involved in solving problems, the ability to recognize when a group requires direction, to interact with the group effectively and to guide them to the accomplishment of the task" (Green, H.1996) .
Current Themes in Leadership are:
 Leadership matters and makes a difference.
 Organizations suffer from too much management and too little leadership.
 There is a need for flexibility, as leadership is multi dimensional.
 There is a need for shared leadership.
 There is need for transformational leadership.
 There is even greater need for instructional leadership.


According to some earlier explanations of leadership styles, leaders were seen as applying three basic styles. The autocratic leader commands and expects compliance. The democratic or participative leader consults with subordinates on proposed actions and decisions and encourages participation from them. The free-rein leader gives subordinates a high degree of independence in their operations. Such leaders depend largely on subordinates to set their own goals, and the means of achieving them (Weihrich,1993, p.495) .

Situational Leadership

In the words of Kenneth Blanchard cited in Hornby, M. (1993) , situational leadership recognizes that different styles of leadership are needed with different people. It also recognizes that different styles of leadership are appropriate with the same person depending on the task. The skill of the situational leader is to match the appropriate leadership style to the level of development of the followers. Situational leaders use a combination of two different leadership behaviours, directing and supporting. Directing behaviour involves providing structure; controlling, supervising. Supportive behaviour involves praising, listening and facilitating.

Blanchard (in ibid)mentions the following five steps to put situational leadership into practice: -

(a) Tell them what to do.

(b) Show them what to do and set a performance


(c) Let them try, but don't turn the whole job over to


(d) Observe performance.

(e) Praise progress (or correct poor performance, if

needed)(p.24) .

Goleman's Six Leadership Styles

Leadership That Gets Results

Goleman (2000)argues that leaders set strategy, motivate people, create a mission and build a culture. The leader uses six leadership styles to get results.

The Coercive Style

The coercive model demands immediate compliance, asking people, "Do what I tell you." The model works best in a crisis. It has a negative impact on morale. Coercive leader creates a reign of terror, bullying and demeaning his executive, roaring his displeasure at the slightest misstep. People feel so disrespected that they think, " I would not even bring my ideas up. Likewise; people's sense of responsibility evaporates, unable to act on their own initiative, they lose their sense of ownership and feel little accountability for their performance. Some become so resentful that they adopt the attitude, "I am not going to help this idiot." Coercive leadership has a damaging effect on the reward system. Coercive style works with problem employees, with whom all else has failed. The long-term impact of Coercive Leader's insensitivity to the morale and feelings of those he leads will be ruinous (p.82) .

The Authoritative Style

Goleman (2000)claims that the authoritative leader is a visionary; he motivates people by making clear to them how their work fits into a larger vision for the organization. An authoritative leader states the end, but, generally, gives people plenty of leeway to devise their own means. Authoritative leaders give people freedom to innovate, experiment and take calculated risks (p.84) .

Goleman argues that the approach fails when a leader is working with a team of experts or peers who are quite experienced. The authoritative model argues for bold and larger than life leaders who mobilize people towards a vision, asking them "Come with me." The model works best when clear direction is needed. The model has strong positive impact on morale.

The Affiliative Style

Goleman (2000)is of the view that if the coercive leader demands, "Do what I say", and the authoritative urges, "Come with me", the affiliative leader says, ‘"People come first." This leadership style revolves around people. The affiliative leader strives to keep the people happy and to keep harmony amongst them. The style also has a markedly positive effect on communication. People who like one another a lot talk a lot. They share ideas; they share inspiration. They give people freedom to do their job in the way they think is the most effective. Affiliative leaders are masters at building a sense of belonging. They bring a cake to celebrate a group accomplishment. They are natural relationship builders. Goleman (ibid)further points out that leaders should employ this approach, try to build team harmony, increase morale, improve communication or repair broken trust. Goleman suggests that, despite its benefits, the affiliative style should not be used alone. Its exclusive focus on praise can allow poor performance to go unchecked. When people need clear directives to navigate through complex challenges, the affiliative style leaves them rudderless (p.85) . The affiliative model creates harmony and builds relationship, believes "People come first." It works best to heal rifts and motivates people. The model has a positive impact on morale. The model forges consensus through participation.The leader facilitates collaboration and team building. It works best to foster respect.

The Democratic Style

Goleman (2000)is of the opinion that the democratic leader builds trust, respect and commitment. By listening to the employees' concern, the democratic leader learns what to do to keep morale high. People operating in a democratic system tend to be very realistic about what can and can't be accomplished. Goleman (ibid)views that the democratic style has its drawbacks. He contends that one of its more exasperating consequences can be the endless meetings when ideas are mulled over, consensus remains elusive and the only visible result is scheduling more meetings. Goleman adds that their people end up feeling confused and leaderless.

The Pacesetting Style

The pace setting model sets high standards for performance. The leader believes, "Do as I do." The model works best to get results from competent teams and has negative impact on morale. Goleman (2000)argues that, like the coercive style, the pacesetting style has its place in the leader's repertory, but it should be used sparingly. The leader sets extremely high performance standards and exemplifies them himself. He is obsessive about doing things better and faster and asks the same of every one around him. He quickly pinpoints poor performers and demands more from them, if they don't rise to the occasion, he replaces them with people who can perform better. Goleman (ibid)further claims that the pacesetting style destroys climate. Many employees feel overwhelmed by the pacesetter's demands for excellence and their morale drops. Guidelines for working may be clear in the leader‘s head, but he/she does not state them clearly. Flexibility and responsibility evaporate, work becomes task focused and boring.

The Coaching Style

Goleman (2000)asserts that coaching leaders help employees identify their unique strengths and weaknesses and tie them to their personal and career aspirations. They encourage employees to establish long-term development goals and help them conceptualize plan for attaining them. Coaching leaders excel at delegating; they give employees challenging assignments, even if that means the tasks would not be accomplished quickly. Goleman opines that the style works best with employees who want to be coached. Goleman goes on to argue that the coaching style makes little sense when employees are resistant to learning or changing their ways (p.87) .

The coaching model develops people for the future. The leader develops others and asks them "Try this." It works best to improve performance and has positive impact on morale.

Leaders Need Many Styles

Few leaders, of course, have all six styles in their repertory and even fewer know when and how to use them. Golemen's study recommends that an effective leader should master four or more styles and switch flexibly among the leadership styles as needed. There is no one mechanical style of leadership which fits the checklist of a particular situation. The leaders should be more fluid and exquisitely sensitive to the impact they are having on others and seamlessly adjust the style to get the best results. The leader can also build a team with members who should employ styles he lacks.

Transactional Leadership

Components of transactional leadership:

Bass. M. Bernard (1998)argues that transactional leadership occurs when the leader rewards or disciplines the follower depending on the adequacy of the follower's performance. Transactional leadership depends on contingent reinforcement, either positive contingent reward (CR)or the more negative active or passive forms of management-by-exception.
Contingent Reward (CR) . This constructive transaction has been found to be reasonably effective, although not as much as any of the transformational components in motivating others to achieve higher levels of development and performance. With this method, the leader assigns or gets agreement on what needs to be done and promises rewards or actually rewards others in exchange for satisfactorily carrying out the assignment.
Management-by-Exception (MBE) . This corrective transaction tends to be more ineffective than contingent reward or the components of transformational leadership. The corrective transaction may be active or passive. In active, the leader arranges to actively monitor deviances from standards, mistakes, and errors in the followers' assignments and to take corrective action as necessary. Passive transaction implies waiting passively for deviances, mistakes, and errors to occur and then taking corrective action. Active transaction may be required and effective in some situations; such as when safety is of paramount importance. Leaders sometimes must practice passive when required to supervise a large number of subordinates who report directly to the leaders.

Transformational Leadership

Professor Cary Cooper (2002)observes that the transformational leadership style is distinct from transactional leadership. The latter is characterized by a more punitive and controlling management style, using contingent rewards and punishments to manage the behaviour of subordinates. Transformational leadership requires charisma to communicate the new ways of doing things to everybody down the line. It needs to involve all the people in the decision making process to achieve that vision, and inspires them to come out with innovative solutions. Transformational leaders, while responding to the needs and interests of colleagues and followers, seek to move the organization forward. They transform the school by influencing the staff, providing a view of the future for the organization and playing a key role in helping everyone to play a part in moving towards this new position. Transformational leadership has been strongly associated with managing change. They create a vision of success and mobilize large factions of key employees to align behind that vision (Bennis and Nanus,1985 cited in South worth,1998, p.46) .

Leaders are authentically transformational when they increase awareness of what is right, good, important, and beautiful, when they help to elevate followers' needs for achievement and self- actualization, when they foster in followers higher moral maturity, and when they move followers to go beyond their self- interests for the good of their group, organization, or society. Pseudo transformational leaders may also motivate and transform their followers, but, in doing so, they arouse support for special interests at the expense of others rather than what's good for the collectivity. They encourage "we-they" competitiveness and the pursuit of the leaders' own self-interests instead of the common good. They are more likely to foment envy, greed, hate, and conflict rather than altruism, harmony and cooperation. In making this distinction between the authentic transformational and pseudo transformational leader, it should be clear that we are describing the two ideal types. Most leaders are neither completely saints nor completely sinners. They are neither completely selfless nor completely selfish (Bass,1998A, p.171) .

Bennis,1984 (in ibid)identifies five competencies which transformational leaders possess:
 Vision.
 Communication and alignment.
 Persistence, consistency and focus.
 Empowerment.
 Organizational learning. (Bennis,1998, p.45) .

Transformational leadership involves considerable social skills of advocacy, inter-group relations, team building and inspiration without domination (Foster,1989, p.52 cited in South worth,1998) .

The leader should first diagnose the development level of the people working under him and then should adapt the appropriate style. He should delegate the responsibilities to the highly competent and committed people working with him; support and coach to the moderate level subordinates and direct the low level servant. However, when the things go wrong, he should direct even to the highly competent and committed people.
Components of Transformational Leadership are:
Charismatic leadership.Transformational leaders behave in ways that result in their being role models for their followers. The leaders are admired, respected, and trusted. Followers identify with the leaders and want to emulate them; leaders are endowed by their followers as having extraordinary capabilities, persistence, and determination. The leaders are willing to take risks and are consistent rather than arbitrary. They can be counted on to do the right thing, demonstrating high standards of ethical and moral conduct.
Inspirational Motivation.Transformational leaders behave in ways that motivate and inspire those around them by providing meaning and challenge to their followers' work. Team spirit is aroused. Enthusiasm and optimism are displayed. Leaders get followers involved in envisioning attractive future states: They create clearly communicated expectations that followers want to meet and also demonstrate commitment to goals and the shared vision. There is no public criticism of individual members' mistakes. New ideas and creative problem solutions are solicited from followers who are included in the process of addressing problems and finding solutions. Followers are encouraged to try new approaches, and their ideas are not criticized because they differ from the leaders' ideas.
Individualized Consideration. Transformational leaders pay special attention to each individual follower's needs for achievement and growth by acting as coach or mentor. Followers and colleagues are developed to successively higher levels of potential. Individualized consideration is practiced when new learning opportunities are created along with a supportive climate. Individual differences in terms of needs and desires are recognized. The leader's behaviour demonstrates acceptance of individual differences (e.g., some employees receive more encouragement, some more autonomy, others firmer standards and still others more task structure) . The individually considerate leader listens effectively. The leader delegates tasks as a means of developing followers. Delegated tasks are monitored to see if the followers need additional direction or support and to assess progress. Ideally, followers do not feel they are being checked on (Bass. M. Bernard,1998) .
From the aforesaid discussion, we can deduce the simple definitions of leadershipas:

• Capability to energies a group.

• Ability to relate various skills so that they emerge as a driving force.

• Making people feel responsible.

• Leadership is the exercise of authority and decision making by an individual who has been given a position of authority in an organization.

• Leadership is the ability to influence others in a particular direction.

• A dynamic activity within a group, where one person influences all the other members voluntarily to contribute towards achieving established tasks and goals in a unique situation.

• An outstanding member of a group who has the capability to create conditions within which all members feel a strong commitment towards achieving accepted objectives in a given environment.


Part: III

Research Question

The main research question is:

 How far Mat Model of Educational Leadership is successful in introducing reforms in an academic institution from the imperialistic and colonial system of education to the democratic and problem solving system?

 The subsidiary questions that helped to understand the main questions are as follows:

 What are the perceptions of teachers about Mat Model of educational leadership style?

 What are the implications of this style on school ethos, discipline and improvement process?

 What are the "mechanisms" that lead to teachers' greater commitment and reform acceptance as a consequence of this leadership style?

Interview with the Principal

Q. What are your views about prevalent teaching method in our academic institutions?

A. Very common teaching method in most of our schools is 'copy-copy', where the teacher copies notes or words from a textbook or notebook onto the blackboard. The students then copy these into their own notebooks and 'copy' their notes onto paper from memorization in the examinations. Rote memorization is not at all sufficient - a student must be able to think. He needs to be educated to accept the arguments and others' opinions pleasantly, gently and respectfully. In our most schools; especially, in low-income areas, the focus is on the "basic" academic skills; as testing and discipline. The teacher is a high authority figure who delivers lecture in the teacher-centred classrooms. The education system has been marked by authoritarian order and harsh discipline which results in the lack of creativity and individualism. To make the students thinkers, we need to develop in themhigher-order skills; such as creativity, adaptability and teamwork, and deepen their inclination to learning. The students should be taught to work in groups and the teacher should turnthe classroom into a true learning community.

Q. What are your views about the prevalent education system in the country?

A. There are two operative systems that are going parallel. The Cambridge and the Matric. The matric system has been deliberately ignored by the ruling elite whilst the Cambridge system is being protected by them. Matric system is maintained by the public sector. Due to this, there has been an obvious loss in the quality of education.It is the genera! mentality of the nouveau riche to send their children to a high class private school. It is a status symbol: And the public as well as the government schools are an insult for them. To me, the only way for govern¬ment and public schools to regain quality educational standards is to enforce a law to bind all the government officials to admit their children to these schools.

Q. What are the reasons of not changing our old teaching practices?

A.Modifications in professional practice often require individuals to alter deeply-rooted attitudes, values and beliefs which are slow, stressful and sometimes traumatic.People are not readily willing to change their mental models. Change creates stress not only through the introduction of new ideas but also through the surfacing of long-standing conundrums and uncertainties. The role of the principal in bringing a change in teaching practices is pivotal. If a principal is a part of the process of change, then chances of success are greater. On the other hand, if he is not part of the change, then chances are that the process of change either does not happen at all or dies down quickly.¬

The wide gap between the theory and practice during the courses/workshops de-motivates the course/workshop participants. In a typical teacher edu¬cation workshop, the partici¬pants are given a handful of recipes for good teaching. Various lists per¬taining to the characteristics of good teachers are shared with the partici¬pants with the assumption that know¬ing the characteristics of good teach¬ing will automatically turn the partici¬pants into good teachers. The teacher is not viewed as a generator of knowledge but a user. Participants are rarely exposed to teaching. Model of teaching, handed over to them during the workshops hard¬ly works in different contexts. As a result, when the teachers go back to their schools at the end of the course, they often find that they cannot use the given recipes in their context which is quite different from the arti¬ficial and contrived environment of workshops. This leads to a feeling of frustration and the teachers drop themselves from the curve of change to the smooth line of the statuesque.

Another important force that often pulls down the line of change is the non-appreciative attitude of fel-low teachers in schools. In some cases, the teacher who tries to bring a change is discouraged by the cold behaviour of colleagues. This situa¬tion is further aggravated when the principal is not supportive. The result is a depressing isolation which ultimately leads to the settlement on the part of the teacher to go back to the traditional way of teaching.

The policy of the school, where the teacher goes back, after a training course, also plays an important role. If the school policy is not supportive, the chances of sustainabil¬ity of change are slim. A school may have its own stance on various issues like discipline, examination, home¬work, etc. If the policy is based on a traditional approach, the change is slowed down and the chances of sus¬tainability of change become slim.

The role of the community in making a change successful is crucial.Parents want their children to do a lot of work in schools, get good grades and are not much concerned about the overall development of a child's personality. The parents of the students expect from teachers to prepare their children for the examination. The concern of students, in majority of cases, is to get good grades in the examination. The pressures from different directions i.e. students, principals, parents and colleagues arise because of the examination. Teachers, who go back to their schools, after attending workshops or courses, find themselves pressured by the external examination system.

One of the strongest forces that plays an impor¬tant role in the process of change is the curriculum. The curriculum is prepared at the national level and teachers have to implement it. One of the aspects of the curriculum is the syllabus that is usually manifested in the shape of textbooks. The teachers are supposed to teach textbooks and the greatest concern of school administration and thus schoolteachers is to finish the course on time. The curriculum is handed down to them and that they cannot make any changes to it. Similarly, research is a scary word for teachers. A typical teacher education workshop hardly addresses the issue of blending teach¬ing and research and how a teacher can enhance or enrich a given cur¬riculum.
Q Is education the responsibility of state
A.Education should be the top most responsibility of the state. The state should make and implement a policy of education, which should be uniform, flexible, modern and fulfill all the aspects of educa-tion. One of the biggest problems of a common man is to provide education to his children. A poor man with a nominal monthly income cannot imagine giving his children a lavish standard of educa¬tion provided by private institutes. His children are bound to sit in government schools which lack even the basic amenities required to teach and learn. What results is that we are getting two classes of educated people-one who gets educated from institutes of high repute and the other from schools which sometimes don't even exist. Society is thus divided into the rich and the poor educated people. Obviously, the children of the rich will have better opportunities for life than the poor because of better educa¬tion. In this way, this system is guarding only the interest of those who have means to attend high standard educational institutes and all the paths are closed for those who lack in resources. This is lead¬ing to frustration and depression in our society. Overwhelming majori¬ty of the people, belonging to our country, are getting education in the dirty and old schools, thus they get only a fraction of the opportuni¬ties to make their career and even less to get jobs. The dual standard of education is a testimonial of the colonial era where one class of society was sup¬pressed and the other was ruling over it. The small percentage of the upper class was getting education from those high standard educa¬tional institutes which ensured the students a bright future.I personally agree with Fichte and Hegel that the chief function of the state is educational.
Q. How can we improve the examination system?

A. We are facing a strange paradox in our education system. The para¬dox is that thestudents are getting good grades in examination while the quality of educationhas been deteriorating over the years. There have been some curricu¬lum changes in Pakistan to keep our students abreast with the changing world. Teachers are trained on these new concepts with every suc¬cessive change, but we could not bring parallel changes in the stu¬dent assessment. The assessment, based specifically on question pa-pers, remained as flawed as ever be¬fore.Research is the highest form of intellectual activity, being vigorously pursued in the west. We need to make our studies research oriented instead of exam oriented in order to make our students creative, and to eradicate malpractices prevalent in the present system.

The worst aspect of the present examination system is the composi¬tion and the quality of question pa¬pers which are dominated by text¬books and are so designed as to assess mainly the memorization of factual knowledge. There should be constant changesin the pat¬terns of question papers. Question papers should contain different types of objective and subjective ques¬tions and the nature of these ques¬tions should also be changed. The questions should test the creative as well as the retentive power of the students' memory. Presently, the students by selective study and rote learning are getting high grades. But they have very poor comprehension of the subjects they study.More importantly, our ex-amination system does not have much credibility.

Q. How would you describe your approach towards leadership?

A.I lead people from mental perspective. I don't like to subjugate or scare people or maintain dominance by subordinating others. I believe in the philosophy of ‘work with' not ‘work over' and try to establish a safe and happy ethos in the school and constitute a smooth-running, efficient, disciplined and harmonious team. I treat every member of my team with respect and honour. I spend considerable time in listening, encouraging, acknowledging and evaluating my teachers. I believe that authority flows to the man who knows. The professional knowledge is a key strand in the authority.I neither believe in the authority of position nor in the authority of person. I believe that the principal should create an environment where teachers should trust one another, compliment one another's strengths and compensate for one another's weaknesses. In such a learning environment, the principal and the teachers should all be committed to continual improvement. The principal should not be easily provoked and have full control over his tongue and temper. Calm deliberations often undo many knots. I often remember Kipling this famous line: "If you can keep your head when those about you are losing theirs and blaming it on you. If you can do that, then people will calm down and begin to think and work constructively."

Shakespeare has also beautifully said:

Refrain tonight,
And that shall lend a kind of easiness,
To the next abstinence, the next more easy;
For use almost can change the stamp of nature.

The principal should live by his convictions and the gospel of hope. Greed, pride, lust, and ambition should not blindside him. He should accept his weaknesses and constantly learn. Unfortunately, our cultural and historical notions of the principals are embedded in myths of great men and charismatic heroes. We have frozen minds and inaccurate views about the world and are sticking to false reality. Unfortunately, we still admire and respect those persons who can harm us and punish us. This notion of educational leadership blocks the emergence of the educated and collective leadership.

Q. How do you deal with the staff problems?

A. The staff has administrative, professional and personal problems. Their administrative problems are providing them facilities of accommodation, telephone and medical. I feel that the government should provide these facilities to the teachers on priority basis. The principal should never cheat and bluff his teachers. As far as possible, he should make sincere efforts to help them and sort out their problems. As regards, the professional development of teachers, I think it is the main responsibility of the principal. He should launch a professional development programme for the teachers and always encourage teachers to try new techniques, motivating them to enhance their professional learning. He should devote efforts to make them highly ‘educated gentleman.' There are teachers, who are trouble creators; there are some who are mischief- makers; some are whimsical, opinionated and elevated about their image. The principal should accordingly use the leadership style. The principal should maintain strong professional relationship with teachers who share their deep interest in education.

Earlier, there were various groups and cliques in the teachers. The poor internal communication had made daily work a nightmare. Some teachers were unduly favoured by the principal; some indulged in mud slinging and some had withdrawn themselves into their shell. I made special efforts to reduce the uncreative tension by promoting professional environment. Nonetheless, I am in favour of "creative tension." I frequently reward the teachers with carrots for performing good job, but, as a last resort, perform my unpleasant duty of punishing those with stick who fail to comply with the agreed-upon work to be done by them.

Q.How do you deal with problem students?

A.I believe that all grown ups were once their mothers' darlings. If a person becomes rascal, I blame society and the school for his misdeeds. While dealing with the students, I follow all the good points mentioned in the theories of humanists, cognitive mentalists and the behaviourists. Here, all the boys have similar problems. Some have emotional problems; some were brought up in a loveless environment; some face academic difficulties whilst some have maladjustment problem. I think we should know the causes of students' ill discipline behaviour. It is, sometimes, because of their social and psychological problems that they show disobedience and defiance. Such behaviour can be result of loveless and strict home environment. The students who show unruly behaviour need attention and counseling. Ideally, I believe the essence of discipline is not forced obedience to the will of principal but willing submission. Physical punishment and verbal abuse are the easiest ways of controlling behaviours. Those students who don't amend their behaviour after counseling surely need some sort of punishment to realize that they have made a mistake and therefore they would not repeat the same mistake again. However, I think the backward, cruel and savage practices of punishments should be forever ban¬ned. Violence is the hallmark of a primitive and intolerant society. The government should do some thing to ban physical abuse in the schools: The teachers, indulging in these cruel acts, should also be punished accordingly. Outdated curriculums, obsolete methodologies, dearth of physical resources, intolerant, ignorant and rigid attitudes of our principals and teachers are plaguing our whole school system. In order to bring an attitudinal change, the rights of children mentioned in the UN Convention may be taught to the teachers.

Q.State briefly the main forms of communication with:

(a) Teaching staff
(b) Students
(c) Parents

A.Good internal communications and coordination of activities is an important way of keeping people involved; particularly, when changes of policy are being introduced. I believe enquiry and reflection are important processes in the school improvement. People here, especially, teachers and parents are not ready to change their mental models. They don't accept the change easily. Through communication and informal interactions, I am gradually changing their thinking pattern.I believe in open door policy. My staff, my students and the parents can see me at any time in my office and in my home. I have ‘total open door policy.' However, we have a regular schedule of formal meetings to discuss students' performance. During the meetings, I try to keep the atmosphere informal, so that the teachers and students may be able to express their feelings freely. They should have absolutely relaxed environment "to toy with the ideas and concepts."

I believe that the principal should create an encouraging climate. Self-esteem is very important. Psychological defensiveness inhibits creativity. I encourage teachers to engage themselves in dialogues. What is needed, in our academic institutions, is dialogue which comes from the Greek word dia logos and literally means when a group of people talk with one another as such that the meaning (logos)moves through (dia)them. We should encourage dialogue instead of discussion. Many a time, I accepted the bright ideas of my teachers which came out during the dialogues.

I maintain a close rapport with the students. I have formal as well as informal interaction with them. Thus, I come to know about their thinking pattern and mental caliber. I discuss with them their problems during games and after morning assembly. I listen to their jokes, their anecdotes and amuse myself. About parents, I feel very upset when I find them advising the teachers and me about education. They don't know the alphabet of education, yet they consider themselves expert of it. Education is more complex subject even than medicine; as a poor doctor kills one man while a poor teacher kills the whole generation.

Q. What is your concept of education?

A. A free man should have a liberal education in order to perform his civic duties and for his own personal development.Islam is the most liberal religion of all religions, which has no dogmas and emphasizes a lot on thinking and deliberation. Following the true spirit of Islam, we should prepare the students to argue persuasively and win arguments. They should be completely free to discover truth and encouraged to think deeply about life, truth, and justice. The aim should be to prepare well-rounded and liberally educated persons. The teachers should motivate the students by making learning interesting and attractive.

Q. What are your views about teacher- centered and progressive student- centered approaches?

A. The purpose of teacher- centered approach is to ensure that the students acquire a prescribed body of knowledge and set of values.An important characteristic of this approach is that the learner is seen as the person who does not yet have the required knowledge or values and the teacherhasthe both andhis functionis to convey them to the learner.The systematic transmission of knowledge and values requires well-behaved learners and a disciplined classroom environment.So far as students' motivation is concerned, competition is seen to be the predominant way to encourage learners to strive to improve their performance. The "student-centered" starts from the learner rather than from any predetermined body of knowledge. The function of the teacher is to be aware of each child's capacity and stage of development. Teacher-centered approach was described by Charles Dickens in Hard Times as: "little vessels arranged in order, ready to have imperial gallons of facts poured into them until they were full to the brim." The traditional approach to education requires a degree of memorization or "learning by rote." The implication is that the learner's mind is not required to be engaged in the process. Critics of student centered approach describe school as, "it is like a wet play-time all day." Because the teacher is not seen as at the center of the educational process and is considered as a "facilitator" of children's learning.

To me, neither of the two extreme approaches has proved generally satisfactory. Teacher- centered approach has often served able students well whilst the student-centeredworks well enough in the early years of schooling in the hands of able and committed teachers. There is a need to develop systems, which should incorporate the best of the both approaches.Teaching requires skillful questioning rather than undue reliance on direct instruction. The purpose of questioning is to encourage the minds of the learners to understand, to arrange, and to act on the material with which they are required to engage. In this sense, learning is active; indeed it is interactive. We should benefit from the good points of both the approaches instead of unnecessary consuming the time in discussing the long-standing conflict between the teacher- centered and student -centered approaches.

Q. What is the important motive for you for work?

A. The most important motive for work is pleasure in work.

Q. What are the causes of the Muslims' backwardness?

A.Centuries of the economic and political oppression have kept us ignorant.We arestill being kept by the old system in the well of darkness.

Q.What is your advice for teachers?

A. Teaching is the most taxing job. I wouldurge the teachers to motivate students by making learning interesting and attractive. They should know thatchildren are not born knowing how to be well behaved. They need help and guidance from parents and teachers. The teachers should show respect for all the students. Naturally, students who are shown respect themselves will show respect to others. Although, the students need to know they are unique individuals, but they also need to know they are part of a group too. This is why we need to teach them to share, to listen to others and to take turns.
Some teachers believe that constantly pointing out the students' bad behaviour will prohibit them repeating it. But this often has the opposite effect, because the students in this way will learn that they get attention by doingthe things which teacher does not like. A better way to encourage students' good behaviour is to always remember to praise them. This doesn't mean never reprimanding them for doing something wrong. But it's important to criticize thestudent's behaviour rather than the student as a person. Instead of saying, "You are very naughty", say something like, "I don't like what you're doing, " or "I won't allow that behaviour." Overall, he should treat the students professionally and with respect.
An effective teacher keeps the class under control all the times. The students are not allowed to leave until the classroom is neat and orderly. He does not dismiss the class until the bell goes. A teacher should set limits for his students and should be consistent about what is and what isn't acceptable. Pencils and rulers should not be allowed to become weapons in students' hands. The teacher should generously praise the students when they co-operate, as this encourages them to behave well: And avoid physical punishment as it only teaches students that violence is the best way of maintaining control. Good discipline, good control, does not just happen - it is the result of a teacher's careful planning of the lesson. For efficient classroom management, the teacher should keep the following points in mind:

 It is a good idea to meet the students at the classroom door for the following reasons:
• A teacher can monitor the classroom.
• His presence may remind students to hurry on to class.
• The personal, friendly "Hello" conveys an attitude of interest and caring.
 When students enter the classroom, there should be a set routine that is to be followed (an expected behaviour) . I, particularly, like that thestudents should deposit their homeworkas soon as they enter the classroom just to realize them at the outset that the teacher means business; thereafter, they should immediately take the seats and, after warming up activity, the teacher should start work on the planned and timed activities.
 An objective written on the board helps students' focus and direct their energy and attention during the class period.
 Even at a time when students are working in groups or with partners, the teacher must be in control. This can be achieved by advance preparation in which the teacher carefully explains the lesson and the expectations for completion.
 A light, fast-paced lesson is more conducive to good discipline than one that is boring or undirected, where neither teacher nor student is certain about the objective or point of the lesson.
 The teacher should prepare student-oriented activities in the pre -interactive phase to make the lesson interesting and keep the students mentally busy during the interactive phase.

Q. What is, in your opinion, the definition of a true lover of knowledge?

A. I believe that a true lover of knowledge considers himself the most ignorant and the most incompetent person.As long as he lives, he loves learning.

Q. Have you started any Teachers' Development Programme and reward system in the school?

A.I cannot do anything about teachers' salaries, but I can improve their working conditions. I have also started Teachers' Development Programme to improve the teaching skills of the teachers and to develop their capacity. There are Teachers' Workshops to improve their conceptual and practical knowledge of teaching, and to reflect on their achievements and shortcomings. I always formally acknowledge the well-evaluated teachers and the teachers who produce good results. I want teachers to continuously examine their teaching style and techniques and work hard to keep on improving their knowledge of the subject and teaching skills. They should follow Plato's this dictum that the unexamined life is not worth living.

Q. Why some teachers oppose your new policies?

A. Human beings like stability more than change. Change is never comfortable. Teachers resist change because it challenges their comfort zone and presents them fear of unknown.The teachers initially deny, then resist and gradually show commitment to change. In every institution, there is a group of academics who oppose or are resistant to change: And there isanother group who remains aloof while some support your innovative ideas. When you make improvement efforts, you certainly face oppositions.

Q. What are the major problems you faced to bring in innovations?

A.Innovations usually have major resource implications—textbooks, equipment, more educated and trained teachers and more in-service training of the teachers. I badly need a team of teachers who are properly trained and have new ideas, knowledge, skills and materials. Some parents and teachers ideologically oppose the innovations, because they did not experience themselves and are not familiar with: Some teachers have their own political viewpoints and they don't like criticism. To produce teachers who have the knowledge, skills, and commitment to teach children, we need to have some excellent institutions offering instruction in the principles and practices of teaching.

Q. What is your advice to the students?

A. They should develop the attributes of open-mindedness, responsibility and wholeheartedness, and act as investigators.

Q. What is the most precious thing in your life?

A. I value time the most in my life. Time is life. The clock must dictate the rhythm of our life. I like Napoleon's saying: "Ask me for anything, except for time."

Q. What are, in your opinion, the good qualities of an educational leader?

A. His relations with his teachers are based on sincerity, truthfulness and honesty, speaks positively about them in their absence, successfully mobilizes their intellectual resources,creates a high -trust culture andinvolves and empowers all the people working under him.

Q. What is the portrait of your ideal teacher?

A. Educating and guiding the students is the hardest and the most difficult types of labour. An ideal educator's whole life is dedicated to intellectual and educational pursuits, which is commonly understood as rarefied and prohibitively esoteric-a life suited to the few rather than the many. His main effortlies chiefly in transforming the base and ignoble traits of his pupils and refines their animalistic tendencies and behavior through his spiritual effects and develops their minds by transmitting intellectual matters. He dispels the darkness of ignorance and stands before his students as a luminous sun of knowledge and makes his students wise, diligent, sincere and honest.

An ideal teacher is an interesting, knowledgeable, witty and charming person. He often prepares his lessons in the silent chamber of his soul; because he knows that much of the frustration and anxiety in the classroom come from the feeling of being unprepared. He is a workaholic because he knows that the professional competence comes from deep, continuous investment in learning. He has some spontaneous moments of inspired creativity. He often ponders, explores, reviews, and questions.Critical reflection is an important aspect of both his teaching and learning. A good teacher is a reflective practitioner.
My ideal teacher maintains an atmosphere of friendship in the classroom. His cheerfulness, enthusiasm, and humour give the discussions a positive feeling. He is a good listener, enlightens his students by his answers to their questions, and stimulates students' thinking by asking open-ended questions. He does not preach his students; contrarily, enables them to be active rather than passive in the discussion.
My ideal teacher knows his subject, but also knows the limits of his knowledge. The teacher and students jointly explore the subject through the power of dialogue. He fosters their quest of free enquiry, trains their ideas, and arouses their feelings and emotions. About learning aforeign language, he suggests his students to read the simple discussions of simple topics instead of the translation of difficult literary masterpieces.
Like a prophet, he is committed to social justice and works with those who are suffering in the society. He sees education as central to the improvement of social conditions of the serfs and slaves of the society and exhibits deep contemplation and commitment to improve their awareness and economic conditions. He willingly sacrifices his life for the right cause and shows deep concern for the welfare of the society. He has charismatic energy and persuasive ability to put his ideas into action. He serves as an intellectual and moral role model for the students. In a progressivist classroom, he plans lesson to arouse curiosity which pushes the students to a higher level of knowledge, encourages the students to learn by doing and interacting with one another. This develops social virtues; such as cooperation and tolerance for different points of views.
He creates a warm and comfortable classroom environment for the students, which is aesthetically pleasing to them. Aesthetics does not mean just art and music, but also the safe, secure, open, caring, supportive and balmy atmosphere of the classroom. In addition, his diversity in knowledge and teaching in this environment helps the students develop guidelines that they don't receive at home. He inspires and motivates his students to seek more by showing them that they can have fun in the search. One of his most important methods of teaching is to be an attentive listener in order to learn from his students how to teach them. He listens silently and learns untiringly, and teaches his students without being wearied. Patience, perseverance, sincerity and trustworthiness are his greatest qualities. He is scrupulously honest in presenting his own ideas and is not afraid of speaking his criticisms to others. He leads by example, and is true to his word; because he believes that words are often worthless if not backed up by the equivalent deeds. He hates glib and oily art. He knows that a truthful and disciplined man has a happy and peaceful mind. My ideal teacher finds peace on hearing and speaking the truth. He is not moved by praise or blame like a solid rock; emotionally balanced like a deep, clear and undisturbed lake, and free from impurities like the moon. He is the ocean of compassion and more tender than a lotus-petal.


(The researcher informally interviewed teachers to know their views about school ethos and strategic relationships of the principal with the stakeholders) .

Mr. Ahmed (pseudonym) . I like him very much. He has created an atmosphere of mutual respect and trust. He stresses the team approach to the task and builds up team spirit. We are working like a team and he is a team leader. We are like a family and he is the head of the family. He is a skillful leader who carefully maintained a balance between freedom and control so as to create a well-functioning team. He motivates the teachers with the combination of rewards and punishments (though he seldom punishes.) . He always respects and praises teachers and generously recognizes their hard work. He knows that "men are men, the best sometimes forget." But his "carrot to eat and stick to show policy" is working very effectively.

Mr Tariq (pseudonym) . I was suffering from an abdominal disease. I was ready to resign but he helped me, encouraged me and gave me almost three months leave to get treatment. I am now feeling fine and praying for his happy life.

Mr.Bashir(pseudonym) . He treats us with respect and open¬ mindedly listens to our ideas. In the meeting, he does not waste his time and the time of his colleagues by wandering off from the main agenda. He listens to our ideas and encourages us to come out with our thoughts. He never takes disagreement as a personal attack. He values consultation.

Mr Altaf (pseudonym) . He is approachable, accessible and always welcoming. He generously appreciates our good work and efforts. He provides open recognition for our good work. He is polite and nice. He never loses temper and shows great patience with those who commit lapses inadvertently. This has, to some extent, created discipline problems among those students and teachers who have slave mentality.

Mr. Asad (pseudonym) . Whenever, I called on him in his office or rang him up, he always first asked me about my family's well-being and then discussed other things. I like his style very much that he does not like un-reasonable bureaucratic constraints and always helps us in solving our problems.

Mr Ahmed (pseudonym) .His passionate concern is that we should treat students with respect. He counseled the unruly students, tackled the under- performance of the teachers with a professional approach. He doesn't accept lukewarm attitude towards duty.

Mr. Ashraf (pseudonym) . I don't like his views. He criticizes our traditions and politicizes education. Our old system of education, which makes the students respectful and obedient, is very good. I don't want to listen to his heretic views.

Mr. Noor Muhammad (pseudonym) .He has diverted the attention of teachers from teaching to extra and co-curricular programmes; such as sports, cultural and artistic activities. The result is that the teachers are not giving enough importance to their instrumental role i.e. achievement of good examination results.

Mr. Allah Dita (pseudonym) . He is a graduate of Birmingham University. He is a forward thinker, his words and performance is kin together. He speaks less than knows and has created a high trust working environment for the teachers. He wants to introduce the ideas of a free nation to the people who are still mentally slave. Some of our teachers and students understand with the rod of authority and respect only those persons who publicallyinsult them and harm them.

Mr. Aslam (pseudonym) . Corporal punishment was a pervasive feature of the life in our school. The administration and parents had approved of corporal punishment which he has now stopped in the school. He wanted to create a learning environment in which learners should develop strong internal discipline. His policy that teacher should be naturally respected and there should be spontaneous co-operation and discipline from learners has badly failed. Earlier, there used to be a complete silence and strict discipline in the school whilst now there are a lot of discipline problems.

Mr. Usman Khattak (pseudonym) . I think Mr. Mat has not been able to run this institution successfully. Maybe, he will be posted out shortly considering incompetent. He is an enthusiastic, honest young person with lots of new thoughts and ideas, but the problem exists in our old imperialistic and colonial system of education. The tragedy is that, even after passing almost sixty years of freedom, we could not overthrow the yoke of slavery from our minds and culture. He considers teachers as a "change agent", but he must understand that in our country, only those people join the teaching profession who do not succeed in any other field of their choice. Thus, he is not having good relations with some teachers and bureaucracy.

Mr. Ibrahim(pseudonym) .Before Mr. Mat, our previous principal Mr. Zulmat (pseudonym)had implemented a teacher- centered, bureaucratic, authoritarian and rigidly hierarchical colonial education system. His autocratic style was highly appreciated by the senior authorities and parents. The teachers out of fear produced excellent results. If you had visited earlier,youcouldvery easily become to know who isthe in charge. There was a ladder of seniority, with the principal at the top, then vice principal, then senior teachers and then ordinary staff. You could even tell this hierarchy from the position and size of their offices, tables and chairs. The principal arrogantly used to scold the teachers in front of the students. And if a student committed a minor offence, he was severely punished in front of other students. The students had no control or power over school organization and were merely seen as recipient of knowledge. They experienced only listening to teachers, memorizing, copying and writing down. The teachers were just miserable rule followers whose job was to implement prescriptive curricula and to obey orders instead of being creative. Teacher- centered lecturing method was predominant, and harsh discipline resulted in the lack of creativity and individualism. Our new principal has brought in many liberal and democratic changes and is working hard to change the thinking of all the stakeholders to willingly accept these changes. Unfortunately, we have nostalgia for an imagined golden age in which students submissively used to listen to the words of teachers only and were never allowed to use their minds. Due to this reason, some parents, teachers and students don't like the liberal changes brought about by the new principal in the school. Moreover, we are suspicious of the new and democratic values. I wish that our government should spend more on education sector to change thisimperialistic and colonial education system with the problem solving education system.
Mr. Abuzar (pseudonym) . Some teachers say that now there is a lot of noise in the classroom. I think it is ‘creative noise.' Classrooms are now not prison cells where students are forbidden to communicate with one another. The school is now well equipped; we have sufficient teaching equipment, computers and sports facilities as well. There is much oral interaction between teachers and students over various school related issues and there is a proper school council. There are now role-play activities, clubs, dialogues, stage shows, declamation contests, debates, conferences, guest speakers and field trips. Our previous principal used to say: "Do as I say, " where as he says: "Do as I do."

Mr. Imran (pseudonym) . Teachers and students are working together in a harmonious atmosphere to make the school a happier and more productive place to learn. Students have set up new rules to sort out their problems through school council.

Mr. Noor(pseudonym) .If there is no punishment, then there will be no discipline. I think the discipline is gradually deteriorating in this institution.

Mr. Allah Dad (pseudonym) . Those teachers who are professionally sound, they are really happy with this change. Certainly, the sycophants and those who had made cliques are greatly disturbed. Their vicious and unfounded gossips had corroded our mutual trust.The school environment is, now, much democratic.There is a real team spirit, plenty of synergy, good personal relations and good communication. We have built up excellent working relations based on trust, and the morale is extremely high. Our principal respects us and has generated a sense of responsibility in us.

Mr. Omar Hayat (pseudonym) . He has maintained formal relations with the teachers and students. Also, he has maintained some social distance between him and the teachers to enhance his mystique.It is good that he is not on too friendly terms with teachers. He works as a senior partner with the other teachers to achieve the task. He strikes a balance between order and freedom. He gives authority and freedom to the teachers to handle the matters on their own initiatives, with the confidence that they can do the job successfully. He tries his best to meet the teachers' needs. But, at the same time, he does not like belly-aching at all, and regularly monitors weak teachers' performance. He ensures that all the decisions are implemented by the teachers and students in letter and spirit.

Mr. Mazhar (pseudonym) . His leadership is entirely dynamic, realistic. He leads by example. He has been blessed with a remarkable gift of enthusiasm and always sparks it off in teachers and students. His enthusiasm produces greater commitment and enthuses us all. He is active, hardworking, competent, caring, dedicated and performs his duties with conscience commitment.

Mr. Tahir (pseudonym) .I still remember his first address. He emphasized the importance of working together as a team and expressed his full confidence in the teachers. But, at the outset, he established that he is the in charge of the school and kept the reins firmly in his own hands.

Mr. Ahsan. (pseudonym) . His best quality is that he doesn't like flattery and keeps the courtiers at distance. He believes that honest words are not always beautiful words. He, at all times, remains impartial and objective.

Mr.M.Abbas(pseudonym) . In fact, most of the principals and head teachers, in our country, are promoted to the management positions without having mastered any real leadership skills. And then they bomb. It's not their fault; they were promoted into the position with little or no training or courses. Mr. Mat is appropriately qualified and has done a Postgraduate Course for Professional Studies from the University of Birmingham. It is, I think, due to this reason that he is playing a key role in ensuring the vitality and growth of the school and has brought an entire change in its paradigm and culture. He has brought a large scale improvement in the teachers' craft through various courses, seminars and workshops during the "Student-Free Days." His leadership is proactive instead of reactive. He, generally, asks questions from us instead of giving orders and is slow to anger-especially over petty issues. He, instead of telling people they are wrong, points out mistakes indirectly. He is of the opinion that our curriculum should be overhauled after every ten-year with the advice of teachers.
Mr.Tahir (pseudonym) .All the teachers and students respect him because he is firm and fair.

Part IV


 The case study recommends a conception of leadership, which is shared, devolved, and flexible, but, at the same time, never accepts slackness and lukewarm attitude. The principal encourages, provides support for a wide range of school improvement initiatives; interdependent relations are based on trust, respect and professionalism. The study recommends: -

 The principal should create an orderly atmosphere without demanding army - like parade ground discipline. In the classroom, the model recommends that students should be allowed to make "creative noise" only.

 The principal should empower others through the process of delegation and participative decision-making. Much of the school decision-making process should be through consultation and dialogue. The staff should share a sense of purpose and work like a ‘well-oiled team.' The principal should be a playing member of the team who should vigilantly watch the performance of each player.

 He should influence all the stakeholders, look after their needs and interest, inspire without domination and help everyone to play a part in moving the school forward. He should encourage staff to be creative, innovative and generate new ideas.

 The Principal should work hard to create a hard working and professional environment in the school. He should build long-term organizational relationships and solidarity through inter¬personal skills and relationships.Being a good teacher is an important dimension of his headship authority.

 The principal should be approachable, accessible and welcoming; thoughtful about the personal needs of teachers; encourage teachers to try new techniques consistent with their interest. He should set up a culture where teacher should freely discuss their views. He should be, in the real sense, the guardian of morale.He should persuade the teachers and enthuse them to such a degree that they are all willing to climb aboard and move beyond their comfort zone.

 The principal should spend considerable time in listening, praising, encouraging and acknowledging people. He should generously give credit where it is due, tell truth and empower others to seek solutions.

 Effective change occurs through the combination of attraction and pressure-
pressure for the teachers of slavish mentality only. The principal should create ethos and necessary environment which is conducive to learning and teaching, so that all group members should work together with a deep sense of motivation, maintain harmony and avoid conflict.

 The teachers and pupils often produce their best work in a climate ofsupport and praise. The principal, besides making the students creative, should also ensure that they get good marks in the examination.

 The principal should encourage teachers to acquire new knowledge and skills, and provide them a real learning environment, where teachers should continually work hard to explore how to improve the teaching techniques and how to change the teaching practices, making them in accordance with the requirements of the changing time.

 The principal has to be proactive and has to devote considerable time and care to look after the students. In the school, there may be some students who may develop bad habits. He should regularly counsel such students to acquireand cultivate neat and clean habits and be good human beings.

 He should urge the teachers to make students open-minded, confident and responsible by giving freedom and enforcing control. He should provide them opportunities to reflect and investigate, believing that knowledge is continually undergoing construction and transformation, and rarely remains as a static concept. His educational philosophy should be that the students be freely allowed to constantly learn, grow, gain new perspectives instead of remaining mentally stagnant.

 Mat Model is based on an educational process that concentrates on the social environment of the students. The students should be expected to understand the social reality in which they live as a fundamental part of their learning activity; especially, the problem solving techniques of Paulio Freire. According to which, when the students read the sentence "Eve saw a grape." They need to understand Eve in her social context, find out who produced the grape, and who eventually profited from this type of work to make any real sense of the sentence. These thoughts may invoke some controversy among the teachers and students because the dialogue will challenge many dogmas. Furthermore, the emphasis on dialogue, negotiation, political imagination, public judgement, evaluation and reflection would not be liked by some teachers who have dogmatic thinking, blocked minds and prefer to live in a close society.

 Innovations in teaching brought about by the principal may not be appreciated by some teachers because of their low- level professional skill. The new learner - centred pedagogy will threaten the teachers' taken- for granted classroom world. Counseling will be a new role for most of the teachers and seemingly will not be easily embraced by some of them.

 Most of the schools have a mixture of teachers with varied talent, commitment and temperament. So, the principal should follow carrot and stick policy. Allah the Almighty also gives rewards to those who perform good deeds and punishes the evil-doers. Surely, he who appears before his Lord as a criminal, there is hell for him, in which he will neither die nor will he live. And he who will appear before Him as a faithful, who has performed good deeds- for all such people, there are high positions, ever green paradise, beneath which canals will be flowing; they will live in them for ever. This is the reward for him who adopts purity. (Taha: 74-76) . Again, Allah the Almighty says, "We indeed created man in the best of moulds, and then we have abased him to the lowest of the low, except such as believe and do righteous deeds."(At-Teen: 4-6) .The principal should try to recognize the individual differences and use different styles of leadership with different people.

 There are lethargic teachers who have an inherent dislike for work. They should be threatened with punishment to get work from them.
 There are teachers with average intelligence, they should be directed.
 There are ambitious teachers who should be praised.
 There are shrewd teachers, who should be controlled. Mischievous teachers should be closely supervised.
 Highly imaginative and creative teachers should be allowed to work in a peaceful environment.
 Highly committed teachers should be allowed to exercise self-control.

 In the acute stress of emergencies, the model suggests that panic can be prevented by the educational leadership who encourages advanced preparation, well-trained, well-organized and credible system.

 The model recommends the right balance between concern for the teachers and concern for the output. This means the educational leader is responsible for the work which is actually being done by the teachers. The creation of a well-functioning team depends on a balance of freedom and control, both within and between teachers.

 The study recommends that there is a dire need of providing appropriate qualification in the modern concepts of school management to the bureaucrats, whose policies are impeding rather than enabling transformation in education sector.Promotion of teachers to assistant head teachers should be on the basis of merit and efficiency. Preference for promotion should be given to those teachers who are in possession of some diploma in Educational Administration and Management.Those who aspire to become principal should be fully acquainted with the theories and research in the behavioural sciences that are related to the studies of the school organization.

 The principal and the teachers should work together to unearth shared "pictures of the future" to foster genuine commitment but, once the decision has been made; it is the entire responsibility of principal to ensure that the decisions are implemented in true letter and spirit.

 The study recommends that there should be frequent courses for teachers and principals in Summer Break to provide them the opportunities to analyze situations and formulate strategies for tackling educational, administrative and management problems in education. The courses should also teach the teachers and the principals the modern concepts in education; highlighting the departure from their traditional role which portrayed them merely as autocratic leaders and asubmissive channel for directives by central education authorities. The courses for the principals should particularly aim at:

 Staff development of teachers, including induction, motivation, support and evaluation.
 Professional team building.
 Enhancing an efficient communications system with all stake holders.
 Monitoring and supervising the quality of teaching and learning.

 The principal should define the task to be given to the teachers in simple words. Then, the task should be broken-down into objectives, aims and purpose. The task interpreted by the principal should be known, understood and appreciated by all the teachers. While planning the task, the principal should keep these points in mind:

 Consult members of the team and be open to new ideas. Exhibit sound professional knowledge and technical skills during the meeting.
 Be a creative thinker, and stimulate creative and innovative ideas.Be firm while giving instructions.
 Know howthe team is going to achieve the task and who is doingwhat?
 What are the resources available to accomplish the task?
 Does everyone know exactly what his job is?
 What should be the strategy; especially, for foreseeable contingencies?
 Make decision, implement it and accept the consequences.
 Assign the tasks and stress team approach to the task in hand.
 Meet teachers' needs by listening to and acknowledging the help.
 Create positive atmosphere and promote team work.
 Build, encourage and motivate the professional team.
 Monitor and supervise the quality of teaching and learning.
 No member of the team be allowed to take control. Keep the reins firmly in your hand and intervene as little as possible.
 Every problem has solution. Quiet, calm deliberation disentangles every knot.
 Avoid having favoritism (Know the people by their fruit.) .
 Think outside the box. Don't be afraid of trying new solutions.
 Always consider yourself a perpetual student.Read, learn, and get ideas from others.
 Be confident that your vision is correct, yet be humble enough to accept better ideas from teachers and students.
 Have the ability to listen, delegate and resolve interpersonal conflicts
 Keep every member of the staff moving along in the same direction.
 Enhance an efficient communications system with all stakeholders.

 This study recommends that the modern recommended reforms in the imperialistic and colonial system of education are not free of problems. Therefore, the educational leader needs to carefully strike a balance between maintaining and improving on statuesque arrangements in the authoritarian system of education and bring about steady improvements in the system.

 Old habits die hard. It is not easier for the teachers who got education in an authoritarian system of education to adapt to the problem solving education system; therefore, they need special courses to know about the new and modern concepts of education. The teachers who are obsessed with discipline issues and are doubtful about problem solving learning should be taught about the students' capacities for intrinsic motivation.

 The principal should move forward with an objective of implementing democratic reforms with firmness, motivating the like-minded teachers in a definite manner in order to transform the culture of the school. The principal should keep in mind Machiavelli's (1513/1962)warning given in The Prince."There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things."

 The principal should be quiet and should not talk without necessity. His smile should be laughter. Abi Hala cited in Alghazali, s Book Muslim's Character says about Hazrat Muhammad (PBUH) : "His silence was on account of tolerance, far-sightedness, estimation, thinking and contemplation.

Part: V


Leadership is the process of influencing group activities towards the achievement of goals and building cohesive and goal oriented teams. The study discusses the various styles of leadership. The autocratic leader commands and expects compliance; the democratic leader consults subordinates and the free-rein leader gives subordinates a high degree of independence in their operations. The interactive leadership style involves sharing information and power, inspiring participation and letting people know that they are important.

Mat Model of Educational leadership is useful in bringing a gradual change in the imperialistic and colonial system of education. The model seeks to move the institution forward without bringing abrupt changes; creates a vision of success and mobilizes teachers to align behind that vision. The model recommends that an effective educational leader should master at least four styles of leadership and switch flexibly from one style to an other. He should not mechanically cling to one style only. He should be more fluid and exquisitely sensitive to the impact he is having on others and should seamlessly adjust the style, keeping in view the teachers' motivation level and performance, in order to get the best results. The educational leader can also build a team with members who should employ styles he lacks. He should keep order in the institution, but must allow full freedom of expression with responsibility, and should not use only the harsh traditional methods of control and punishment.

The study assumes that Mat Model of Educational Leadership is highly effective for creating ethos as well as efficient working climate; as the model cautiously strikes a balance between maintaining and improving on the statuesque arrangements in the imperialistic and colonial system of education and brings about gradual improvements in the system. The study assumes that teachers and pupils produce best results in a tension - free, but adequately supervised working environment.

If an academic institution is headed by a gloomy principal, a sense of impending unwillingness will permeate the whole structure of the school. So, the first and foremost thing is that the head of an institution should be optimistic and have full belief in his own abilities.The study recommends that the Mat Model will be successful only when there is highly efficient, optimistic, dynamic, educated, versatile and confident leadership. This research has proven that introducing democratic reforms to imperialistic and colonial education system is not a straightforward process. The sudden academic freedom will remove the lid from the pressure cooker and the students brought up in an authoritarian environment will make such reforms problematic. Moreover, the change should be gradual; otherwise, it will be too difficult to be absorbed by some parents, teachers and students; however, the study assumes that if the persistent efforts are made, many of the dilemmas will be resolved over the period of transition from imperialistic and colonial system of education to the problem solving system of education.


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