The Rule Of Couplet Pk The Rule Of Poetry

联律PK诗律
罗志海文


通常,诗人们所说的诗律,有相当部分是后人的总结。至于哪些是唐人制定,哪些是后人总结,本文就不一一细分析了。
对联体诗是一种新诗体,它的律则遵循联律,与诗律有相同,有不同。下面一一比对。对联体诗的律则下面简称联律。


一、一三五不论,二四六分明

诗律规定一三五不论,二四六分明。实际上不管是唐人,还是后人,对这条规则是打折扣的,是有条件的不论,有条件的分明。例如,有些唐代诗人诗句拗了,采用本句自救。这种自救方式,一是表明了该诗人辞穷,二或是他觉得唯有这样子写,才能更好地表达情怀。这种错误的写作,在诗律初创的唐代,也许不算是一种错误。后人总结后,不但不认为是错误,还认为这是一种经典。这是后人在逐错。
联律规定,一三五七九、十一、十三、十五、十七、十九不论,二四六八十、十二、十四、十六、十八、二十分明。这个不论,是真的不论。这个分明,是真的分明。一副联,在双字分明位置上的字,上联该平的,写成仄了,下联对应的字原本仄的,就要改写成平。没有本句自救的说法。只有上句拗,下句救的律则。


二、三平尾

诗律规定,不能三平尾,更不能双句三平尾与单句三仄尾同时出现。纵观唐及唐之后的律绝,偶尔也出现过三平尾的诗例。
联律规定,可以三平尾对三仄尾,也可以四平尾对四仄尾。但尽量不要这么写。这是因为,对联体诗,不仅仅有五言七言,还有九言十一言,更含有双字言。双字言的写作,不可避免地要出现三平尾四平尾,它的对应句,当然地会出现三仄尾四仄尾。目前,罗志海写作了六千多首对联体诗,五七九等单言诗当中,三平尾对三仄尾的诗例不足五例,占不到百分之零点一。假如要给罗志海写的对联体诗打分,从有没有三平尾的角度打分,罗志海的得分就是九十九点九分。
这其中原因,是觉得唯有这样,才能更好地表达情怀。另有三五首诗例,起初是想三平尾对三仄尾,后来认认真真地推敲后,改弦易辙,不那么写。这说明,罗志海还没有到了辞穷的地步。


三、标点符号

由于历史上的原因,古诗没有标点符号。
细细分析,唐律律绝诗,单句句末,应标上逗号。双句句末,应标上句号。这是公识。如今的诗人,常常直接加上标点符号,以致诗意荡然无存或是打了折扣。在唐诗或是近现代仿唐诗句末加上逗号句号,无疑是画蛇添足。
唐诗用字是繁体字,现代诗多用简化字。唐诗平仄用字遵循古平仄,后人写诗平仄用字有的遵循古韵一佰零六部平水韵, 有的遵循中华新韵(十八韵)。遵循古韵的仿唐诗诗人们,对写通韵新韵的仿唐诗诗人们深恶痛绝,到了欲置于死地而后快的地步,常常出言不逊横加指责。殊不知,你们写格律诗旧瓶装新酒(抑或新瓶装旧酒),还不是用了标点符号简化字,还不是用普通话去吟诵唐诗宋词。我就不信,你们能用唐朝话来诵读唐诗?!你们的可笑行为、错误书写和朗读,比起写新韵仿唐诗的诗人来,还不是五十步笑百步哟!


四、首句末字

唐律绝诗,首句末字可平可仄。
对联体诗,首句末字只能是仄,不能平。如果一副联,上下联末字皆是平音字,且押韵,这副联肯定是蹩脚联,不能贴在门框上招人笑话。
单独一副对联,上联末字是仄声字,下联末字就是平声字。平声字就是韵字。两副对联合成诗时,一定要押同韵或通韵的平声字。合成诗了,才能明显看到韵脚字,感受到诗韵的媚力。


五、粘连

粘连是律绝诗的灵魂。
同样,对联体诗也是律绝诗,也讲究粘连。没有粘连,对联体诗就不再是诗,而是两副或四副对联简单的堆砌,诗韵同时荡然无存。
写作四六八十言等对联体诗,讲究粘连,一定会平仄失替、
联律规定,对联体诗五七言律绝平仄,必须按照诗律规定,依次顺替。其余四六八九言等律绝允许平仄失替,允许犯孤平。


六、平仄依次顺替

诗律有"平平仄仄平平仄"等规则。
联律同样也有"平平仄仄平平仄"等规则。对联每句用字已超过五言七字,甚至长达百字以上,其平仄很难依次顺替。如果平仄失替了,上联拗字,下联在相同位置的字,务必救回来。
罗志海写的对联体诗,用字三至二十一言,且都是绝句。仅有一首《千古奇緣》(对联体三十六绝,与钱永德、塞外雪影合写)是超长绝句。
罗志海也翻译过诗友写的对联体诗律句。


七、主题

每一首律绝诗的主题非常明确。也有主题不那么明确的律绝诗,标题为《无题》。
家家户户门框上贴上对联,大多数是喜庆欢乐性质的。常常多副对联共用一条横批。横批,是对联的主题。共用一条横批,也就是主题不那么明显,或是没有主题。对联体诗是两副或四副对联粘连的诗,受此影响,它的主题有时不那么明确。
对联体诗通俗易懂,极有特点,富有诗意,吟诵起来朗朗上口。


八、对联诗与对联体诗

对联诗与对联体诗,一字之差,极易混淆。
唐格律诗中,有些律诗,第一二句第七八句也对仗;有些绝句,第一二句第三四句两两对仗。这些律绝,为数不多,后人称之为对联诗。唐之后的诗人,也有写对联诗的。这些诗不能自成一体,故不能称之为对联体诗。
对联体诗包含对联诗,但自成一体。对联体诗中的五言七言律绝,是对联诗,与唐对联诗写作方法相同,也是古韵新韵格律诗的其中之一。对联体诗中,三四六八九言至二十一言,已超出唐诗五七言的范畴。故对联体诗是一种新格律诗。


20180630/4:00至20180704/18:00罗志海写
20190806/10:00至20190902/21:00罗志海译


The Rule Of Couplet PK The Rule Of Poetry

By Luo Zhihai


Generally, the rule of poetry that the poets saying a considerable part is the summary of later generations. As for which are formulated by Tang people and which are summarized by later generations, this paper will not analyze them one by one.
Two pairs of couplets are a new style of poetry. Its rule follows the rule of couplet. It's same and different to the rule of poetry. The following comparisons are made one by one. The rule of two pairs of couplets is hereinafter referred to as rule of couplet


1. One, three and five are regardless, but two, four and six are clarity

The rule of poetry stipulates one, three and five are regardless, but two, four and six are clarity. In fact, whether it is Tang people or later generations, this rule is discounted, It's conditional regardless and conditional clarity. For example, some Tang poets' verses were written wrong. He saved it in the same verse. This way of saved it in the same verses showed that the poet was poor in words, or that he felt that only by writing like this could he express his feelings better. This kind of wrong writing may not be regarded as a mistake in the Tang Dynasty when the rule of the poetry was first created. Later generations concluded that this is not only not a mistake, but also a classic. This is the later generations are pursuing the mistake.
The rule of couplet stipulates that no matter one, three, five, seven, nine, eleven, thirteen, fifteen, seventeen and nineteen are regardless. But two, four, six, eight, ten, twelve, fourteen, sixteen, eighteen and twenty are clarity. This no matter, true no matter. This clarity, true clarity. In a couplet, double words in a clear position, the upper couplet should be level tone, but written in oblique tone. The lower couplet corresponding to the original, it is necessary to rewrite level tone. There is no self-help in this sentence. Only rule that the first sentence written wrong and the second sentence saved right.


2. Three level tails

The rule of poetry stipulates that no three level tails and not to mention three level tails of a double sentence and three oblique tails of a single sentence should appear at the same time. Throughout the Tang Dynasty and after the Tang Dynasty, there were occasional poems with three level tails.
The rule of couplet stipulates that three level tails can be paired with three oblique tails or four level tails can be paired with four oblique tails. But try not to write like that. This is because there are not only five words and seven words, but also nine words and eleven words in two pairs of couplets. It also contains double words. Writing of double words, it is inevitable that there will be three level tails and four level tails. Of course, there will be three oblique tails and four oblique tails in its corresponding sentence. At present, Luo Zhihai has written more than 6,000 two pairs of couplets (also named couplet poems) . Among the single words poems such as five, seven and nine words, there are less than five couplet poems with three level tails, accounting for less than 0.1 percent. If Luo Zhihai's poems are to be graded from the angle of whether there are three level tails, Luo Zhihai's score is 99.9.
The reason for this is that only in this way could he express his feelings better. There were three or five other poems. At first, he wanted to have three level tails to three oblique tails. Later, after careful deliberation, he changed his chords and wrote like that. This shows that Luo Zhihai has not reached the condition of poverty words.


3. Punctuation marks

For historical reasons, there are no punctuation marks in ancient poems.
Detailed analysis shows that Tang's rhythmic poetry should be marked with commas at the end of a single sentence. Put a full stop at the end of a double sentence. This is common sense. Nowadays, poets often add punctuation marks directly, so that their poetry disappears or is discounted.
Putting comma or stop at the sentence end of Tang poetry or modern imitation of Tang poetry is undoubtedly painting a snake with feet -superfluous.
Words used in Tang poetry are traditional words, while simplified ones are often used in modern poetry. In Tang poems, level and oblique words follow ancient level and oblique. Some of poets of later generations, their level and oblique words follow ancient rhyme, one hundred and six Pingshui rhymes. And some of them follow Chinese new rhyme (eighteen rhymes) . Following the ancient rhyme, the poets who imitate Tang poems hate the poets who write the new rhyme of Tang poems. When they want to be put to death and then quickly, they often criticize them. Little wonder, when you write metrical poems like putting new wine into old bottles (or like putting old wine into new bottles) , you also use punctuation marks and simplified words. Also use Mandarin Chinese to chant Tand poems and Song lyrics. I don't believe that you can read Tang poems in Tang Dynasty dialect? ! Your funny behavior, wrong writing and reading are not as good as the poets who write new rhymes and imitate Tang poems. That's those who retreat fifty paces laugh at those who retreat a hundred paces.


4. The end word of the first sentence

In Tang Dynasty's rhythmic poetry, the end word of the first sentence can be level and oblique word.
For two pairs of couplets, the end word of the first sentence can only be oblique not level. If a couplet, the end words of the upper and lower couplets are all level words and rhymed, it's surely a poor one. It can not be put up on the door frames to attract jokes. In a single pair of couplets, the end word in the upper couplet is a oblique word, and the end word in the lower couplet is a level word. The level word is rhyme. When two pairs of couplets are combined into a poem, they must rhyme in the same rhyme or in the near rhyme. When they are combined into a poem, we can clearly see the rhyme words and feel the charm of the rhyme.


5. Adhesion

Adhesion is the soul of rhythmic poetry.
Similarly, two pairs of couplets are also rhythmic poems, also pay attention to adhesion. Without adhesion, they are no longer poetry, but simple stacking of two or four pairs of couplets with no rhyme at the same time.
Writing two pairs of couplets such as four, six, eight or ten words, paying attention to adhesion, it's bound to be out-of-order in level and oblique words
The rule of couplet stipulates that the five or seven words of rhythmic poetry of two pairs of couplets, the level and oblique words must be replaced successively in accordance with the rule of poetry sequential succession. Remaining four, six, eight and nine words and so on rhythmic poetry allow them are out-of-order in level and oblique words, allow alone level word.


6. Successive succession of level and oblique words

In the rule of poetry, there are rules as "level, level, oblique, oblique, level, level and oblique".
In the rule of couplet, there are rules as "level, level, oblique, oblique, level, level and oblique", too. Words of every sentence of couplet has exceeded five or seven words or even more than one hundred words. It is difficult to be successive succession of level and oblique words/ If it's not successive succession of level and oblique words, ao word of the upper couplet, and the word in the same position of the lower couplet must save it back.
Two pairs of couplets written by Luo Zhihai, their used words from three to twenty-one. And they are all quatrains. There is only Curious Fate Of Thousands Of Ancient Times (thirty-six words of quatrain of two pairs of couplets written by Qian Yongde, Saiwaixueying and Luo Zhihai) , which is a super-long quatrain.
Luo Zhihai also translated eight verses of couplets written by friends in poetry.


7. Theme

The theme of each rhythmic poem is very clear. There are also poems with less specific themes, titled Untitled.
On the door frames of every household the couplets posted. Most of them are the nature of festivity and joy. Often pairs of couplets share a banner. A banner is the theme of couplet. Share a banner, that is, the theme is not so obvious. Or there is no theme. Couplet poem is a poem adjoined with two or four pairs of couplets. Affected by this, the theme of couplet poem is sometimes not so clear.
It is easy to understand, very characteristic and full of poetry. It is easy to recite.


8. Couplet poetry and two pairs of couplets

A word difference between couplet poetry and two pairs of couplets is easy to be confused.
In Tang metrical poems, there are some eight verses, their first and second sentences and seventh and eighth sentences are also in antithesis. Some quatrains, their first and second sentences and third and fourth sentences are in antithesis in pares. These eight verses and quatrains are rare, and later people call them couplet poetry. Poets after Tang Dynasty also wrote couplet poetry. These poems are not self-contained, so they can not be called two pairs of couplets.
Two pairs of couplets contain couplet poetry, but they are self-contained. Five words and seven words of eight verses and quatrains in two pairs of couplets are couplet poetry. They have the same writing method as couplet poetry in Tang Dynasty. They are also one of the metrical poetry of the ancient rhymes and the new rhymes. Among two pairs of couplets, three, four, six, eight, nine to twenty-one words have gone beyond the category of five and seven words in Tang poetry. Therefore, two pairs of couplets are a kind of metric new poetry.


6/30/2018,4: 00—7/4/2018,18: 00 Luo Zhihai wrote
8/6/2019,10: 00—9/2/2019,21: 00 Luo Zhihai translated

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