The Myth Of Keeping Universal Time (Opinion) - Poem by Varanasi Ramabrahmam
THE MYTH OF KEEPING UNIVERSAL TIME
Existence of time, separate from human awareness or processes or happenings as proposed by Plato and nurtured by later intellectuals is reviewed. The nature of our present time-keeping is studied by a contemplative analysis of the structure and manifestation of time as understood in physics, chemistry, biology, evolution and cosmology. Physical quantities and physicochemical processes constructing and manifesting time, such as speed, phase, frequency, acceleration, energy, entropy, atomic and nuclear transitions, chemical reactions, ageing, evolution, origin of universe, etc., are used to correlate such a presentation with expressions of time currently available. Such an analysis yielded three kinds of time- classical, quantum and cosmic and they are further discussed and contemplated together with expressions on mental time. This contemplation is used to consolidate the existing ideas about ‘mathematical time’, the notion and experience of passage of time and our universal time keeping. The absence of an all including and all influencing universal time is suggested. The primacy of time as a fundamental physical quantity is suggested to be reviewed.
Keywords: Classical Time; Quantum Time; Cosmic Time; Mathematical time; Universal time; Real and imaginary times; Structure and manifestation of time; Finite and Infinite time-spaces; Being; Becoming.
It is our observation and experience that time plays a significant, influential and useful role in living and non-living systems. Daily routine of us, worldly or scientific, is time-based, time-related and time-bound. The origin, being and cessation of things, objects, events, processes, thoughts and life systems are time-specific. All natural and non-natural processes are assumed by us to take place in accordance with time and its passage. In all disciplines of learning and activity time has been playing a prominent role.
Earth spins around itself and simultaneously revolves round the Sun. Based on these movements, day and night are created and the passage of time is observed, experienced and measured by us. We have knowledge of the extent of passage of time by referring to watches, clocks, various time-measuring devices, calendars, almanacs etc. The awareness of Time through these measures is only a facet of nature of Time and is not comprehensive and complete. Awareness of nature of Time is varied and is not unique. Like the understanding of Divinity, the understanding about Time is multiple. Time has many forms, structures, natures and has been viewed, defined and understood variedly
Thus the nature of time is as perplexing today as it was at the beginning and during the evolution of civilizations, to scholars, scientists and philosophers. Ordinary people do not even dream that they do not know about the nature of time. But passage of time bears powerfully on human emotions in the form of past and future. The nature, structure and manifestation of time are seldom of interest to normal human-beings. But many intellectuals have been and still are wondering about what time is, how it began, where it is leading us, will it end and also does a quantity like universal time actually exist at all in the sense as is understood, practiced, and applied by us presently 1-12.
In light of expression of varied, contradicting and different views of time, philosophers tended to divide themselves into “process philosophers” and “philosophers of the manifold” to understand and express about the nature of time. “Process philosophers” hold that the flow of time (or human advance through it) is an important metaphysical fact. But the “philosophers of the manifold” hold that flow of time or human advance through time is an illusion. This article is an attempt to consolidate currently available different views, concepts and senses in relation to time in natural sciences and comment on our keeping universal time, the notion and experience of passage of time and on the absolute, true and mathematical time separate from processes.
Observation of Contemporary philosophies of time in physics:
The current discussion about the nature and structure of time in physics and cosmic physics essentially relates to the ideas about origin etc., of the universe11,12. Such an expression equates or relates time to movement and passage of macro-masses and to expansion and contraction of ‘universe’ in the infinitely pervading universal space. Complex mathematical constructions of time in the form of string theory, M-theory, brane theory and real and imaginary (complex) times are developed to explain the nature of such cosmic time12.
The available other two insights and manifestations of time as change or becoming1,2 are not considered with enough attention. The nature, definition and structure of time must be common and comprehensive enough to aid us in understanding nature of time as it occurs in various disciplines and fields of knowledge and activity and in different branches of the same discipline like physics.
Ramabrahmam2 has recently presented a consolidated picture of nature of time as follows:
1. Human observation and experience recognize physical and psychological existences of time.
2. Any movement or change or becoming concerning matter/anti-matter or state or form of energy creates time. Simply, change is time (concept diagram I) .
3. Time is caused by natural or non-natural processes.
4. Physical existence of time consists in changes and measurement of duration of such changes. Energy-form-change through matter or changes in or to matter/antimatter by energy is time.
5. Time has durational (period) and metrical (counting) aspects.
6. The interval between two moments, the beginning and cessation, is the duration of the process and is absolute to that process.
7. Time is dependent on a natural or non-natural process for its being. Time is missing in the absence of a process, natural or non-natural.
8. Physical existence as a flow and period of happening is physical time.
9. The Being and Becoming of matter and/or energy is physical time.
10. An energy- presence and the transformation of that energy from one form to another form are essential for time flow, time-measurement, to monitor the passage of time and even for time to exist
11. Time is explicit and non-inherent to a physical phenomenon.
12. Time is a consequence of and consequence with processes.
13. There is no time exclusive of process influencing the process.
14. Inertia, static charge or non-activity concerning matter/antimatter or energy or atomic and nuclear energy levels confers the scope for time-space.
15. Change or transformation of inertia or static charge or activity of matter/antimatter or energy or energy transitions creates time-flow.
16. There is no time. And there is no passage of time. There is only ongoing of processes.
There are various propositions on the locus (path) and the mathematical representations of time while ‘flowing’. The observation of the illustrations demonstrates that there is no one mathematical representation of time-flow and the locus of time-flow given is none other than the course of the path and direction of the process selected and also is based on the mathematical and advanced mathematical scholarship of the intellectual proposing the model. Thus the mathematical insight of passage of time is varied pointing to absence of a unique, absolute and true mathematical time. The reality is ongoing processes are mistaken as passage of time and the concept of mathematical representation of time-flow is description of course of natural or non-natural process observed and passage of time is just an assumption 2 and is unreal and mythical in nature.
In view of above observations, the physical and mental times and their structure, manifestation and human experience of time-flows and the structure, manifestation, role and reality of passage of universal time and its keeping are discussed as follows.
The current insight of time as available in natural sciences seems to be a collection, combination and clubbing of thoughts of Plato, Aristotle, Galileo, Newton, Einstein and eminent modern physicists and mathematicians1,11,12. In natural sciences we come across quantities which vary over a wide range. We talk of the size of mountain, the size of the tip of a pin, size of a cell, the size of a molecule and the size of a fundamental particle. We talk of the mass of our galaxy and the mass of a hydrogen atom. We talk of the age of the universe, time of evolutionary process and the time taken by an electron-transition in an atom.
Natural sciences such as physics, chemistry and biology give us insight of time variedly. Movement, change and becoming are three classifications of time available1. These classifications aid us in understanding nature of time in physical, chemical and biological processes
The above three insights of time essentially concern changes and activities. Thus change of place or phase of matter or change of form of energy is constructed as time. External monitoring of duration of these changes is measurement of time as duration of the course of ongoing change and is construed as passage of time (see Tables IV to VIII) .
Time is structured differently in the different branches of natural sciences. We have identified many periods of happenings, from the period of nuclear transition (10-23 sec) to the age of the universe (1017 sec) . The nature of time when studied reveals two aspects of itself – durational (period) and metrical (counting) . We have clocks, watches, calendars, almanacs…. to monitor and measure time as a duration and flow. The periods and instants of time as centuries, decades, years, seasons, months, days, morning, evening, hours, minutes, seconds, milli second, micro second, nano second etc., are ‘numerals’ that are used to signify or characterize durations of various physical and physicochemical processes and changes. The physical time can be viewed as classical time, quantum time and cosmic time as follows.
Continuous transformation of the energy manifested through natural or non-natural processes creates classical time and passage of that time. This time-flow associated with the course of an on-going process- physical, chemical, or biological is monitored by the energy-transformation taking place in a clock. Thus energy-transformation is the time-flow aspect of time which when divided as seconds etc., becomes metrical aspect and is the dynamic aspect of time The measure of this energy-transformation decides the speed of respective time-flow. It is important here to realize that any movement, change or becoming concerning matter or state or form of energy creates time. In other words classical time is caused by the ongoing processes, natural or non-natural during which energy is transformed or transferred continuously.
Further, when we analyze it would be interesting to note that within all time-measuring devices, an energy-presence will be available and transformation of energy from that energy-presence or source takes place2 and also see Table X. The energy-transformation within such a device takes place as a non-periodic, linear or periodic process. The energy-presence and energy transformation there-in, are the result of a mechanical, electrical, electronic, atomic or laser-application/guided process taking place and going on within the clock and the same is manifested as movement of hands or display of digits on the dial depending on the technology used. Thus energy-presence as energy source and transformation of that energy from one form to another form are essential for time-flow, time-measurement, to monitor passage of time and even for time to exist.
Thus the time measured by transformation of energy as a continuous or bits of transforming energy in the clock which is a function of the domain of activity and natural forces causing the transformation of energy. Time is manifestation and representative of a physical activity. Time is same but the physics involved in the measurements is different as manifestations are different. Time as duration originates and evolves with the process and is discontinued and missing on the completion of the process.
A mass or charge can be present in a state of rest or motion. State of rest or uniform motion gives masses/charges infinite time-space or static time or time at rest and change in these states gives time-flow or dynamic time or time in motion. Thus inertia (potential) , movement, change or becoming of matter or energy (potential / kinetic) is implicit and associated with a mass/charge/particle in a physical phenomenon. Inertia is inherent in mass at rest and potential is inherent in location or shape of matter and in static-charge. Velocity and acceleration (measure of energy transformation) are inherent to movement and measure of tendency to change (entropy) is inherent to change and becoming. And time is not similar in nature to a physical phenomenon. Change of velocity and/or acceleration or entropy which is the measure of energy transformation causing the movement, change or becoming, is in-built and influences respective movement, change or becoming. But measurement of passage of time based on energy transformation in a clock, is external. Such external flow and monitoring and existence of time and ‘passage of time’ can not and will not influence the course of a process
Despite Polonius objecting as “motion time cannot be, since motion takes place in time”, most of the cases in physics relate time to motion and motion plays an important role in the understanding, defining, estimating, measuring and giving a structure and form to time.
Motion is of three kinds: translational, rotational and vibratory is an activity concerning matter or charge. Velocity and measure of change of velocity (acceleration) signify, qualify and manifest motion. Change in velocity (acceleration or deceleration) reciprocally influences durational aspect of time.
Speed, velocity, acceleration, momentum, force etc., contain and define time in linear or translational motion. Angular speed, angular velocity, phase, angular acceleration, torque etc., define time in rotational motion. Velocity, phase, frequency, etc., define time in vibratory motion.
We can clearly see here that the ‘structure’ of time as a physical expression or mathematical representation is not the same in the three different motions. Even though time will be same as a magnitude of duration signifying the measure of relevant energy transformation in all types of motion, the structure of time in the sense of what it is representing or manifesting i.e., what is happening during that activity is not same because of different physical quantities, energies and natural forces are involved in the construction of respective time intervals and passage.
It is the motion or course of a process or event and not locus of passage of associated time, which is rectilinear, circular, curvilinear, non-linear, two-way (reversible) or wavy or periodic or non-periodic and if and only if human-beings try to understand it physically or mathematically the course of the process appears so (see also Figure I) . And the linearity or non-linearity or periodicity or complexity associated with the course and locus of movement, change or becoming are determined by the actions or interactions relating to mass or charge. Symbol or quantity of time occurring in the denominator of an expression of a physical quantity signifies measure or speed of conversion of energy directly in respective duration. Symbol or quantity of time occurring in numerator signifies only durational aspect of conversion of energy through transformation of matter/energy. Action is a measure of energy transformation during the movement or change or becoming of matter or to matter or in matter in tune with energy available and amenable and natural forces involved during respective time intervals.
Some more insight of classical time and its passage as change and/or becoming:
Universe expands or contracts or oscillates12. Natural radio-activity makes elements like Uranium to emit α -, β- and γ- rays spontaneously. Heat energy changes ice (solid) into water (liquid) . Sunlight makes leaves manufacture chemical energy. Humans and other living organisms grow and decay. These are the macroscopic changes of phase of matter which reflect the microscopic changes – atomic, nuclear or molecular or chemical or physicochemical - within the matter
Thermodynamics deals with forward and reversible changes. It is interesting to note that movement of masses in non-microscopic sense is not involved in thermodynamic processes. Only the course of the process is monitored externally or observed. And the changes taking place in terms of phase changes concerning matter or energy transfer or transformation are manifested as the course of change in all the physical, chemical and biological processes as time.
Becoming (involving phase changes of matter ex: ice becomes water, as change of form of energy through matter, ex: electrical energy becomes light energy through electrical bulb or growth or decay of organisms ex: a plant becomes a tree) is also a manifestation and passage of time. Change and becoming mean the same. Modulation and demodulation of carrier radio or micro waves employed in information transmission, reception and retrieval are forward and reverse actions where the respective electro-magnetic energy waves undergo reversible transformation in relation to amplitude, frequency or phase. All these different changes or becomings also create time.
Entropy is a good measure to monitor the presence and progress of a natural or non-natural process. Entropy gives the measure of the tendency of matter and/or energy to transform. Change of energy is manifested in change of entropy and measure of change of entropy is the measure, rate or speed (in terms of external monitoring and measuring) of such a transformation which manifests time and passage of time. Entropy either increases or remains constant. A process takes place spontaneously if entropy increases. Energy and natural forces associated with the system or process decide the direction and duration of the process. Rate or speed of a happening comes into picture only when external monitoring of the course of happening is done.
In most natural or non-natural happenings the stress is not macroscopic movement of matter and/or energy but their macroscopic and/or microscopic change or becoming.
Thus time understood in terms of motion or movement cannot be applied to understand many natural or non-natural processes represented as change or becoming. Change or becoming (of phase of matter by the aid of energy or change of form of energy through matter) is the activity that also creates, contains, represents and manifests time and its passage.
Temporal symmetry or asymmetry is only human observation and concern. Past is a record and future is an expectation of humans in relation to physical present. Processes are reversible or irreversible and they have nothing to do with time as past, present or future. Thus temporal asymmetries observed in fossils only as past and never as future, in spherical wave emanation from the source and never contracting into the sink are only human concerns and of course can be explained in terms of increase in entropy. It should be realized here that entropy can remain constant or increase and never decrease. Such universal property of entropy makes time unidirectional in some cases even though the laws of nature themselves allow for retrodiction no less than for prediction. And temporal symmetry apparent in visible world is true only partially and need not necessarily be true for all natural or non-natural processes
Time in microphysics -Spectroscopy, Quantum physics:
Atomic and Nuclear transitions:
Changes in the atom or nucleus of an element take place at the respective energy and time scales giving rise to atomic and nuclear changes of matter. The atomic, molecular and nuclear changes take place involving rest and change of place (movement) of molecules, atoms and fundamental particles in molecular, atomic and nuclear spaces relating to respective micro-energy levels and micro-time-scales. Human sense organs can not sense all the magnitudes of these micro-energy changes and time-intervals which take place in micro (10-6 sec) , nano- (10-9 sec) , pico- (10-12 sec) , femto (10-15 sec) times in micro- spaces (nm, 10-9 m) Specific sophisticated instruments in which similar micro-changes are taking place in similar micro-intervals alone can sense, monitor and gauge these micro– energy changes happening in micro -times. Human mind is limited in sensing, imagining and comprehending these micro-time scales and also macro time-scales like the age of the universe. We only infer about these times and can not estimate them in a direct way.
Allowed Bohr orbits are only those for which the orbital length equals an integral multiple of electron wavelengths. All other orbits disappear due to destructive interference. Spectroscopy is the result and application of atomic and nuclear changes/transitions involving electrons and nucleons among available and allowed energy states. These transitions give rise to electromagnetic radiations spread over electro-magnetic spectrum. Electromagnetic energy depends on the wavelength (or frequency) of the radiation. Different radiations with different wavelengths are generated from different atomic and nuclear transitions and are useful to probe different aspects of material and energy changes and the extensions of such changes. These generated and probed material and energy changes are quantum in nature and the time-periods representing such quantum changes possess quantum nature. The result of discontinuous atomic or nuclear or wave-particle energy changes which are discrete in nature create quantum time. Special situations arise in considering time in quantum mechanics and particle interactions.
Quantum mechanical aspects of time
In quantum mechanics it is usual to represent measurable quantities by operators in an abstract many-dimensional Hilbert space. This space is an abstract mathematical tool for calculating the evolution in time of the energy levels of systems—and this evolution occurs in ordinary classical space-time. Energy and time are conjugate; no experimental arrangement can determine both energy and time simultaneously. The limitation and reality is such states of the experimental arrangement have to be described by classical physics.
The relation between time uncertainty and energy uncertainty, in which their product is equal to or greater than h/4π, Δ E Δ t h/4 π, has led to estimates of the theoretical minimum measurable span of time, which comes to something of the order of 10-24 second and hence to speculations that time may be made up of discrete intervals (chronons) . These suggestions are open to a very serious objection, viz., that the mathematics of quantum mechanics makes use of continuous classical space and time (for example, it contains differential equations) . It is not easy to see how it could possibly be recast so as to postulate only a discrete space-time.
Discrete time spaces are durations associated with discontinuous or discrete energy transfers or transformations manifested as integral multiples of quantum of action h, the Planck’s constant. During such discrete transformations or changes constructing quantum time in terms of discontinuous energy-absorption or emission or possessing dual nature in terms of matter (as particle and wave) , time flow is discrete and discontinuous and is quantum in nature. Both displacement-momentum and energy-time uncertainties represent quantum action and have the dimensions of energy-time- J.s and happen in quantum extensions. It is suggested here that these discrete durations create and represent quantum time as classified above in multiples of a chronon (10-24 sec) . Whether it actually happens so or not will be interesting to probe. Any time interval in which no physical happening concerning matter/anti-matter and/or energy takes place is a passive time interval. It does not have any physical significance. Such intervals serve only theoretical interest and are not of significance until a physical activity within such extensions is possible from theoretical predictions or experimental observations.
Principle of simultaneity of actions and associated times in wave-particle propagation:
Quantum theories of systems such as atoms, with a finite number of particles encounter difficulties when quantum ideas are extended to the Maxwell field, which describes electricity, magnetism and light. Maxwell combined all the known laws of electricity and magnetism. Maxwell’s theory rests on the existence of “fields” that transmit action from one place to another. The fields that transmit electric and magnetic disturbances are dynamical entities; they can oscillate and move through space.
Maxwell’s synthesis of electromagnetism can be condensed into two equations that prescribe the dynamics of mutually perpendicular electrical and magnetic fields. He himself derived the first great conclusion from these equations that electromagnetic waves of all frequencies travel through space at the same fixed speed-the speed of light. This gives primacy to speed as a fundamental physical quantity to time and speed is inherent and essential to electromagnetic wave activity.
One can think of the Maxwell field as being made up of waves of different wavelengths. In a wave the field will swing from one value to another like a pendulum. Traveling wave is like an oscillating pendulum: Electromagnetic radiation travels through space as a wave, with its electric and magnetic fields oscillating in directions perpendicular to the wave’s direction of motion. A travelling electromagnetic wave has a speed of propagation and simultaneously the speeds of oscillation of associated electric and magnetic fields. This means that such a travelling wave is having more than one ‘time’ simultaneously-first- the time concerning propagation which varies continuously/ discretely as the wave moves and second, the fixed time-periods of oscillations of associated electric and magnetic fields associated simultaneous to propagation. This observation clearly informs that a physical phenomenon can have more than one ‘time’ simultaneously, the ‘ times’ representing different actions simultaneously taking place independently not affecting each other. This gives the principle of simultaneity of actions and associated times in relation to wave-particle propagation.
According to quantum theory, the ground state or lowest energy state for a particle is not just the lowest energy state. That would give definite position and definite velocity, zero to the particle which is a violation of uncertainly principle. Similarly even in the vacuum or lowest energy state, the waves in the Maxwell field won’t be exactly zero but can have small sizes. The higher the frequency of the wave the higher is the energy of the ground state. Thus in view of uncertainty principle, activity of matter and energy cannot stop in quantum microscopic systems. Hence time cannot be extinct in such micro physical systems. There is no time at rest for quantum time under such circumstances. Quantum time like this is always dynamic and time in motion. There are an infinite number of different wavelengths in any region of classical space-time and an infinite amount of ground state energy. These are also manifestations of quantum time.
Time reversal: Particle Physics:
Building blocks of matter e.g. electrons, protons, neutrons etc., are all fermions and obey Fermi-Dirac statistics. Photons, helium atoms, alpha particles, mesons, gravitons etc., are all bosons and obey Bose-Einstein statistics. It was thought till recently that fundamental laws of nature are time symmetrical. It is true that the second law of thermodynamics according to which randomness (entropy) always increases, is time-asymmetrical, but this law is not strictly true (for example, the phenomenon of Brownian motion contravenes it) and it is now regarded as a statistical derivative of the fundamental laws together with certain boundary conditions. The fundamental laws of physics were long thought also to be charge symmetrical (for example, antiproton together with a positron; behave like a proton and electron) and to be symmetrical with respect to parity (reflection in space, as in a mirror) . The experimental evidence now suggests that all three symmetries are not quite exact; but that the laws of nature are symmetrical if all three reflections are combined: charge, parity and time reflections forming what can be called CPT mirror. The time asymmetry was shown in certain abstruse experiments concerning the decay of K mesons that have a short-time decay into two pions and a long time decay into three pions. The absence of time reflection infers absence of passage of time and past or future. And it must be noted that these decays are happening in classical physical time monitored by external clocks.
Time reversal is only a movement in reverse direction concerning movement of certain fundamental particles in micro-times (in physical time monitored by an external clock) .
Time in special theory of relativity
Special theory of relativity professes that the laws of science should appear the same to all freely moving observers. The freely moving observers measure the same speed for light, no matter how fast they were moving. The speed of light is independent of the motion of freely moving observers and is the same in all directions. Theory of relativity is about measurement of time period of an event and is only interested in the counting aspect of time under special circumstances and metrical in essence. Thus special theory of relativity can not be taken as a theory of physical nature of time. It does not say anything about the structure or manifestation of time. Time dilation is only an appearance and not a reality and is the result of relative motion between the event and observer. Watches or clocks slow down or run fast only when the speed of energy-conversion available within the clocks and responsible for time measurement and time-flow has decreased or increased. And at no time such time measurements and time flows are connected to or in tune with the universal time. Since the process going on in the watch or clock is never influenced by the universal time.
Space-time continuum: Time in general relativity and cosmology
Comments on Ideas about time in General theory of relativity:
Einstein’s theory of general relativity, which agrees with a large number of experiments, shows that time and space are inextricably interconnected..General relativity combines the time dimension with the three dimensions of space to form what is called space-time.
The mathematical model of general relativity predicted that the universe, and time itself, should have a beginning or end. The general understanding shared till then that time should be infinite in both directions is challenged.
The theory incorporates the effect of gravity by saying that the distribution of matter and energy in the universe warps and distorts space-time so that it is not flat. Objects in this space-time try to move in straight lines, but because space-time is curved their paths appear bent. They move as if affected by a gravitational field. But it is surprising that these distortions taking place in the universe to space-time do not influence the simultaneously occurring infinite number of happenings on earth and remaining astral bodies in the universe and at no time their space-times are curved and times are warped. This observation clearly establishes the reality that events relating to the universe are true but such events do not create a universal time that influences all the other processes taking place simultaneously in the universe.
Also according to general relativity, time and space do not exist independently of the universe or of each other. They are defined by measurements within the universe, such as the number of vibrations of a quartz crystal in a clock or the length of a ruler. It is quite conceivable that time defined in this way, within the universe, should have a minimum or maximum value—in other words, a beginning or an end and this concerns only the finite processes taking place in the universe. It was thought that in a real body, collapsing under its own gravity, pressure or sideways velocities would prevent all the matter falling together to the same point, where the density would be infinite. Similarly, if one traced the expansion of the universe back in time, one would find that the matter of the universe didn’t all emerge from a point of infinite density, which is called a singularity and would be a beginning or an end of time. But to talk in finite proportions about infinite happenings though is an attempt to unravel truth, may not be yielding truth.
Shape of Time: Time has no independent shape or locus:
Just as time does not exist separate from space, time does not exist separately from the process either in macroscopic or microscopic or cosmic processes. There cannot be a purely mathematical time devoid of or unrelated to any physical event even if such one is constructed it remains only a mental conjecture.
The shapes or loci or forward and backward movement of time just as engine on a rail track, future meeting past etc., are mere human logical guesses and descriptions given to time in an attempt understand its nature. There is no path for time as there is no time independent of process. All paths of time are actually the courses taken by the processes. What appears bent is moving matter, when we talk about curling of time-space or warping of time. Here time is viewed as associated with motion or time is solely defined by motion or observation of motion (of matter) . Time is just not motion but is also change or becoming. Merger or absorption of time dimension with the three space dimensions considers time to have an existence. Concept of time is only a creation of human mind to observe or follow the course of processes. Time is only a human notion. Time is only a human sense - the seventh sense. Passage of time is only ongoing of processes. Time needs processes for its being. In the absence of processes time is missing. Such a reality associated with time gives to time so many shapes, forms, loci and figures and all these attributions are human intellectual exercises only.
Time has no shape of its own. Just as liquid takes the shape of the vessel containing it and we assume that is the shape of liquid so also time takes the shape and locus of the process which is under observation and is studied to understand the nature of time.
Events happening, processes taking place involving respective changes in matter/anti-matter and/or energy in universe are finite phenomenon. Events happening, processes taking place involving respective matter and/or energy to universe are infinite. Accordingly time becomes finite or infinite in relation to observed phenomenon.
Finiteness and infiniteness of time are relative to the domain of activity and the observer. Presence of observer is responsible for speculation and counting of time. Absence of observer to phenomenon relieves the necessity for time to exist in all its aspects. Time then is only the duration of start or initiation, going on and cessation of a phenomenon, the duration being solely controlled by the respective natural forces acting in relation to matter, anti-matter, energy and nature and contents of surroundings involved. Passage of time and speed of passage of time concerning an event are functions of the presence of an observer and also relative motion between the frames of reference holding event and observer.
Thus the time occurring in various branches of physics and other natural sciences can not be defined and structured in the same way though in measurement may be gauzed as the duration of occurrence in seconds or fractions of second depending on the forces; the energies involved are different in nature and magnitude. Time and processes are intertwined with space. Also time is intertwined with processes. Space is necessary for processes to take place. Time need not pre-exist for processes to take place. Time is not responsible for processes to take place but time starts, evolves and ends in tune with state or phase of processes. The four natural forces concerning matter/anti-matter and energy are responsible for the initiation, sustenance and cessation of processes. Time is a consequence of actions and interactions among matter, anti-matter and energy.
Real and imaginary times: Origin of universe etc. and nature of cosmic time:
Origin of the universe or other phenomenon concerning universe as expansion or contraction or beginning or end seem to dominate the expressions about the concept, nature and structure of time12. Concerning time solely with the universe is side-stepping the study of nature of time. Deciding nature of time in relation to universe alone is incomplete assessment of nature of time and understanding of time. Our imprecise understanding of origin etc., of universe need not prevent us to have a clear understanding of the nature of time. The notion that higher and advanced mathematics alone can lead us to definiteness about the nature of time seems to be not in tune with the reality. Clubbing time with details of universe can be unnecessary. Nature of time can be conceived independent of origin of and other matters related to universe. Understanding the nature of time is different and separate to understanding the nature of origin of universe etc, .
On observation of nature including cosmos, it is evident that what can have a beginning and/or end is process, event or happening and not time. Time is as long as the process lasts and is absolute to the process. Zillions and zillions of such absolute times exist simultaneously associated with zillions and zillions of respective processes going on in the universe simultaneously, some affecting each and one another and most others not affecting any other at all.
What exists, therefore, is ongoing of processes-physical, chemical, physicochemical, biological, cosmological etc., ; that is all. There is no passage of time. The time associated with the origin etc., of universe is solely associated with the respective phenomenon concerning universe. String theory, M-theory, imaginary time, etc., can not make sense when time in music or ageing process or evolution is studied, defined and counted. Universal time in the sense we are keeping can in no way influence the zillions and zillions of physical and chemical and other natural and non-natural processes taking place in the universe. Only the natural forces initiate, sustain and cause cessation to the processes. Time period of happening is the consequence and not the cause of the processes. The shape of time etc., relating to time concerning the universe can not be a model for times associated with the infinite number of various other macroscopic and microscopic simultaneous processes taking place in the universe untouched by the happenings to or in the universe. Theories of relativity, quantum gravity, String theory, M-theory, brane theory etc., have no relevance when nature of time is to be understood and expressed and explain the happenings, their sustenance and cessation in various living and non-living systems taking place in the universe individually, independently and simultaneously.
Just as different biochemical and biophysical processes take place in the human body simultaneously and parallel in a related or independent way so also zillions and zillions of physical and chemical and physicochemical processes take place simultaneously in the universe independently or affecting one another together with changes to universe.
Role of velocity and observer relating to classical and quantum times:
Velocity is manifestation of time in classical and quantum times relating to movement. Change of velocity (acceleration-the measure of energy-transformation) is the measure of speed of passage of time or rate of ongoing process and determines the duration of movement.
Presence of relative motion represented and manifested by relative velocity between the frames of reference holding observer and event is responsible for the appearance of time dilation and of course length contraction. And an observer must be present to sense the passage of time and count.
Psychological or Mental Time:
Philosophy of mind and thought processes:
The individual’s experience and observation of time and passage of time:
Human-beings perceive past, present and future during the course of their lives. Past and future exist only because of human observation, concern, monitoring, counting, recording and expectation in the physical present.
Human experience of time as past, present or future and observation of time as an elapse taking place during course of a process are different. The physical time flow associated or absorbed in an ongoing process is never experienced by humans. It is only measured. Natural or non-natural processes are eternally present guided by respective natural forces irrespective of human observation.
Ancient Indian View:
All the events that take place during the physical time are followed by humans with an egoistic mind. Such an identification of ‘I’, ‘me’ and ‘mine’ with individual (himself or herself) , objects, persons, events, ideas, nations… etc., creates a “psychological time in us2. Such a ‘mental time’ is created in the Jagrat (Wakeful/Awakened) Conscious State of mind. Wakeful/Awakened, Dream (Swapna) , Deep Sleep (Sushupti) and Wakeful Sleep (Jagrat Sushupti) - are different conscious states of mind creating different phases of mind. They are structure and phases of Mental Time-Space 13-17.
Humans know/learn and express/teach in these conscious states of mind13-17. These conscious states or phases of mind are the result of transformations of mental energies in the Unchanging and Ever-Present Awareness present as Energy-Presence during all these conscious states,13-17. Upanishadic wisdom calls such an Awareness as ATMAN or BRAHMAN. Atman is normally referred to as SELF. Atman is present in us and is the result of the breathing process13,14. According to Upanishads Atman is the Source of Mental-Energy. In modern scientific terms Atman can be termed as a BIO-OSCILLATOR, which issues out psychic or mental energy pulses13-17. Atman is the oscillating psychic Energy-Presence denoting and providing Mental Awareness and Time-Space.
As Prajnanam, or Continuous Conscious Awareness, Atman witnesses all our mental activities, related body activities and happenings within and without of the body and body’s reactions as thoughts and organ-movements to these happenings13-17. Being such an Awareness, Atman provides the energy required for guiding the mind to know/cognize/learn through sense organs, perceive, think, experience, understand, etc., and store such an information and retrieve the same in the four conscious states described above and makes us conscious of ourselves and within and without ourselves. Such continuous and simultaneous or alternate rise and set of the conscious states or phases of mind is an aspect of psychological time and its flow.
Upanishads term Awareness of Self (Atma Drishti) as time2. Awareness of the Self (Atma Dristi) is the mental phase without cognitions or cognition-related experiences taking place or retrieved (the Wakeful Sleep Conscious State) . The three other conscious states – the Wakeful/Awakened, the Dream and Deep Sleep-Conscious states are alternate super-impositions over this continuously present conscious state. This Wakeful Sleep conscious state of mind transcends both physical and psychological times and time-flows. This is the original, normal or ground state of mind and all mental activities are excited states of mind15-17.
Antahkaranas (inner mental tools) perform various mental activities which are transformations of psychic energy (virtual chit-energy-maya) to cognize and create or retrieve thoughts/perceptions/experiences/understandings/m eanings/urges etc., in us5,6. Thought-flow within us, which is the psychic-energy change during conscious states, also constitutes and constructs psychological time, time-flow and sense of passage of physical time. Thought process and thought-flow is the becoming of mental energy which makes us conscious of time and time-flow.
Feeling of passage of time-Time-conscious, time-unconscious and time-transcendent phases of mind
We are not conscious and aware of passage of time in the sense of physical time and also as the rise and set of conscious states or phases of mind and flow of thoughts in the sense of psychological time, in deep sleep (Sushupti) conscious state of mind. Actually physical time measurement is only our concern and monitoring of various physical, chemical, biological, psychological, cosmological, political, historical, social etc., happenings. We are used to physical time being associated with the simultaneous revolution of earth around itself and the Sun and appearance and disappearance of Sun. This is a highly simplistic view. A more comprehensive view based on a cosmological happening which gets repeated every sixty years is the basis for the preparation of Indian almanacs15. Universal Time is our creation and maintenance by atomic clocks for our usage and reference.
Consciousness becomes consciousness plus awareness during mental functions. Such a phase of awareness is the series of durations of single chit (psychic) -energy pulses of period 1/10th of a second13-17. These energy pulses when reflected in Medha (medulla oblongata?) form Chidabhasa (reflected chit) pulses. Chidabhasa is also called as Maya (the Current of Awareness) and Pranavam (Primordial Sound) 13.
When the reflected chit-energy (mental energy) pulses, constituting the current of awareness, are not transformed in Medha as antahkaranas (Concept Diagrams II and III) and flow untransformed in the body, this phase of Mental Time-Space is known as Wakeful Sleep(Jagrat Sushupti) conscious state. When these reflected chit-energy pulses or chidabhasa or maya (virtual chit-energy) transform in Medha as antahkaranas – inner mental tools - manas, buddhi ahamkaram and chittam - the Awakened/Wakeful (Jagrat) and Dream (Swapna) conscious states are on and function13,17. These inner mental tools in the interplay of these two phases of mind in the ever-present Wakeful Sleep (Jagrat Sushupti) conscious state cognize/know/learn objects and object-energy forms through active participation of sense and action organs, react through action organs, be aware of mental processes such as thoughts, perceptions, meanings, understandings experiences etc., During this phase of mental activity we are Time-Conscious, both of physical and psychological times which are energy transformations within and without the body.
When the above mental activities involving reflected or virtual chit (mental) energy –maya- transformation cease to be and we are conscious but not aware of the calmness within us which is the result of such a cessation of mental activities, this phase of mind gives rise to Deep Sleep (Sushupti) conscious state. This conscious state is similar to zero in number system and vacuum in physical science16,17. This absence of mind conscious state is useful in the cognition activities13-17. This phase of mind is thought-free. Hence time –consciousness-free mental state. During this mental state we are unaware of the passage of physical time and no psychological time passage takes place in the form of change of conscious states or rise and set of thoughts. Then experience of peace of mind exists and though we are unaware of this Peace during this phase we will be aware of remnants of this Blissful, Peaceful, Silent and Time-conscious-free experience during the twilight of Deep Sleep and Awakened/Wakeful conscious states. This twilight phase is the phase of experience of the Self (Atman) , also known as unoccupied awareness or pure consciousness. This is the already referred to Wakeful Sleep (Jagrat Sushupti) conscious state. Peace, Bliss, Silence and Time-transcendence are experienced during this phase because of absence of transformation of psychic energy maya (reflected or virtual chit-energy pulses) into antahkaranas (inner mental tools): and hence mental activities are also absent but mind is alert possessing awareness and functions producing respective mental activities if willed and required. This state of mind transcends both physical and psychological times and time-flows2.
Ego, the collection of thoughts about ‘I’ as body and associated personality traits, social status, ‘me’ and ‘mine’, creates vasanas (impressions/experiences/memories) within us. All cognition/perception/volition/urge-related experiences are created and retrieved by the antahkarana chittam13,14. Egoistic thoughts and actions (with a thought and sense of ‘I’, where ‘I’ is identified with respective individual) in Awakened/Wakeful and Dream conscious states creates memories (vasanas) . These memories get activated later (with reference to physical time passage) and cause happiness or unhappiness accordingly in the present of physical time. The phase of mind bereft of egoistic thoughts, memories or other cognitions /perceptions/experiences is the state of Self (Atman, Ego-free, blissful, peaceful and is Time-transcendent) . The three other conscious states – the Awakened/Wakeful, the Dream and Deep Sleep Conscious states are transient super-impositions over this state simultaneously/alternately.
Memories and record of our experiences is our psychological past and our fears, anxieties, imaginations, expectations etc., are our psychological future (Concept Diagram I) . The thought-flow concerning these past and future in the form of memories activated as remembrances and fear, anxiety, anticipation, apprehensions, imaginations etc., consist of our psychological past and future and gives us the awareness of time and feeling of passage of time. Thus thought-flow (reflected chit-energy transformations) is the psychological time and its flow. Through these thought-processes in the Awakened/Wakeful (Jagrat) and Dream (Swapna) Conscious states we perceive the passage of physical time and impressions created by such perceptions on our egoistic minds we illusively experience the passage of physical time. These Time-Conscious thought-processes take place in the awareness of mind in the physical present (psychologists calculated the duration of physical present as 10-1 sec.18) . Egoistic and time-conscious mind activates vasanas (memories, experiences) as remembrances, worries, pleasantness etc., and anticipates in the form or fear, anxiety and thus creates past or future in the physical present, which is just a mental phenomenon. Living in the ‘past or future’ in the present leads to peacelessness. The aim of spirituality is to enable one to cultivate the habit of living in the physical present with peace19.
Construction of classical and quantum times:
The structure and manifestation of time is different in different domains of activity and they constitute different branches of physics and other natural and social sciences and philosophy. Time is also manifested as change and becoming in addition to movement. The two manifestations of time as change and becoming play important role in understanding the various physicochemical processes going on in living organisms and in the ageing process of organisms. Many biological processes are irreversible and time-asymmetric.
Matter or energy in a state of rest is in potential form. Matter or energy is in kinetic form in a state of motion or change. The potential form of matter or energy is available and amenable to move, change or become resulting in a physical process2. Similarly matter and energy in kinetic form, under transformation or change or in the process of becoming in forward or reverse directions are Time in Motion and constitute physical and psychological times2. These transformations, transitions, changes or becomings have finite durations and are physical manifestation of time and construct physical and mental times.
Thus Matter- or Energy-Presence without transformation is Infinite Time-Space and Time at rest. Matter- or Energy-Transformation is Time in Motion or Dynamic Time or Time Created or Metrical aspect of time. In this form time has finite nature. Finite Time-Space as duration of a happening is defined, created, controlled and ceases to be depending on Energy-Presence and the energy/matter/antimatter available and amenable for and cause of transformation guided solely by the four natural forces. Continuous presence or continuous flow of matter or energy without transformation or change or activity is Time-transcendence or Timelessness. That means continuous state of rest or of uniform motion is infinite presence of time or Timelessness. Time flow signifies the measure of conversion of energy in a process. Time flow is a measure of Being (presence) and Becoming (transformation) of matter and energy in space. All physical, chemical, biological and cosmological processes create, contain and manifest time and its passage. Time has no existence in the absence of processes. Time becomes extinct when activity involving matter or energy ceases to be. Activity is manifestation of transformation of energy. If the transformation of energy is continuous and finite classical time is created. If the transformation of energy is discontinuous, discrete and finite, quantum time is created. The changes of and to the universe which are infinite in nature create cosmic time.
The physical manifestation of flow of time or passage of time is ongoing processes involving transformation of energy through matter or change of phase of matter by the aid of energy and time evolves as duration as the process progresses. Time in motion is a measure of conversion of energy/matter/antimatter in a physical/chemical/ biological/ cosmological process.
Universal time and cosmic time:
The three kinds of time-classical, quantum and cosmic- cited above are in no way influenced by universal time being kept by us. The time kept and followed by us as 2014, February,6th Thursday is not the cosmic time. It is also not classical or quantum time. It is completely our creation in an arbitrary way for our facility
Counting of physical present is a function of geographical/cosmological location and cultural and religious background of humans keeping the time. Passage of time is a human correlation, counting and keeping. So we have different calendars and almanacs for different religious and cultural groups of human-beings. Time-scales to measure duration or passage of time have been and still are different for different civilizations, cultures, religions, regions, nations, geographical locations and natural processes. Calendars, almanacs, etc., vary accordingly. The well- known and popular Indian ways of measuring passage of time are Chandramana (lunar, based on moon’s transit) , Sauramana (solar, based on sun’s transit) and Barhaspathyamana (based on Jupiter’s transit) . Jews, Christians, Parsis, Jains, Buddhists, Zorastrians, Muslims etc. have still different calendars of their own.
The universal time we are keeping as 2014, February,6th Thursday etc., has no meaning outside the planet earth. This counting arose more because of human concern and not because of actual presence of any universal time. It is only on earth we have a regular fixed-hour day and night. Even on earth the duration of day-times and night-times are not uniform. And the arrival and change of seasons is more an atmospheric and geographical phenomenon. It would be interesting to know that the space travelers keep time in tune with local times of countries that are conducting the space missions and do not have a time of their own.
Thus time has to be construed not to be a physical quantity. General or universal time is human creation. The concept of existence of time as influencing processes or to posses shape or undergo warping under special circumstances is purely mental and mathematical and not physical. Thus a universal time in the sense of affecting the various ongoing processes does not exist. Time is activity of matter, anti-matter and/ or energy in space. Relative Time is an aspect of measurement of duration of process under special circumstances and is not universal. In the absence of an observer passage of time is ongoing of processes in respective frames of reference. Time is evolved and shaped by processes and does not have a shape of its own. The direction, locus or shape of the process under consideration is the shape of time.
Explaining time as past or future in terms of light cones, microwave background etc., is a very good intellectual exercise. It may not add to clarity about the nature of time when we deal chemical reactions and biological processes. Time is not a physical quantity. Time is conscious awareness. Time is a sense. Passage of time is an observation and a mental experience in a particular conscious state of mind
Psychological past is a record of happenings and psychological future is an apprehension about happenings caused by the egoistic mind during the passage of physical time. Both psychological past and psychological future are thought-forms in the physical present involving psychic energy transformations in the wakeful and dream conscious states of mind.
Kant’s antinomy of pure reason implicitly assumes that time had a meaning independent of the universe and this paper presented time in that light. It is believed that there is no need to know about universe to know about time and “shape” and “warping” of time will confine only to a particular field of physics i.e., cosmic physics. To understand the origin and fate of the universe we may need a quantum theory of gravity but to understand the nature of time in all its aspects we need not need quantum theory of gravity. Also thinking that cosmology and happenings concerned with changes of and to universe and movements associated with them alone define time is far from reality. Cosmological changes are one among zillions of processes going on in the universe simultaneously from microscopic changes taking in living organisms, various organic and inorganic natural or non-natural processes happening on planets, solar systems, galaxies etc, . to origin and etc., of universe. Changes concerning universe just deal with macroscopic processes of larger durations and simultaneously zillions and zillions of happenings are taking place in the universe. Thus attributing time solely to the cosmic process concerning origin, being, expansion or contraction or oscillation of universe is an incomplete and non-comprehensive understanding of the nature of time.
Just as different biochemical and biophysical processes take place in the human body simultaneously in a related or independent way so also zillions and zillions of physical and chemical processes take place simultaneously in the universe independently or affecting one another.
Processes are unaffected by our notion of passage of time. Processes are affected only by actions and interactions concerning matter, anti-matter and energy in space. Velocity and acceleration (the measure of transformation of energy) /entropy which are physical manifestations of energy transformation and are inherent to motion/change/becoming and are responsible for speed with which a body moves or change takes place. Passage of time in the sense in which we understand it currently is non-inherent to process- a motion, change or becoming- is explicit to process and can in no way influence the course of the processes. Time is the consequence of processes and not the cause of processes.
During a largest period i.e., the age of oscillating universe, zillions and zillions of other processes and events with varied periods are taking place in various galaxies, stars, planets, satellites, living and non-living systems simultaneously. Time is human sense of correlation of duration of happenings and human count or division of some of such durations. We can not distinguish time as it is in itself different and separate from our awareness and the processes with which it is associated. Time existing independent of being and becoming of matter/anti-matter, energy, process, event, activity etc., is not a reality. There is no time outside to process influencing the course or otherwise of the process. Time and process or Time and system or Time and event or Time and activity are not like tune and song; Time and any process are also not like thread and garland.
Time and process are together like sun and sunshine. Time and system are together like sugar and sweetness. Time and event are together like moon and moonlight.
Time and activity are together like leaf and greenness.
Associated with each process, ‘flows’ its ‘absolute’ time. Thus we have those many Times in the sense of both duration and passage of time as the processes and the magnitudes of these Times (durations) are influenced only by the respective natural forces responsible for occurrence of respective process. Passage of time in physical reality (without or within body) is psychological experience and only notion and reality is the change or becoming of matter/energy/anti-matter in space- the on-going of processes. Passage of time is only an observer’s concern with the course of process.
We, the humans and other living systems grow or decay as organisms and simultaneously and in parallel the sun rises and sets forming days and nights on earth because of earth’s spin around it and simultaneous revolutions around the sun. Such appearance and disappearance of the sun and the caused days and nights do not make us grow or decay. The food we take and the metabolism that takes place are responsible for our growth or decay. The best observation for this is onset of menstruation in girls. This biological phenomenon happens because of happenings in the body and not because of ‘age’ of the individual. In some cases, girl’s menstruation starts in ninth year and in others between 9 and 18 years. And some girls have problems and start of menstruation gets delayed also. Similarly kids get teeth at various different months and start talking at various different months after birth. These observations inform us that the passage of time as days and nights etc., do not have any influence on growth or decay of living systems. Both are simultaneous, parallel and unconnected processes. And the universal time being kept by us as millenniums, centuries, decades, years, months, weeks, days, A.M, P.M. etc, . have no physical relevance. And our keeping such a time is absolutely our creation and an absolute, true mathematical time separate from our awareness or monitored process does not exist. For that reason only Srilanka and England could change their national times recently
Reversal of Time is actually reversal of processes in a particular domain of activity of matter or anti-matter. Time and space are inextricably connected in all natural and non-natural processes. Time cannot be separated from any process. Time and change are interwoven. Activity is time. Cessation of activity is absence of time. Simply putting activity of matter and/or energy is time. Cessation of such an activity is extinction of time. Mere duration without physical activity or happening has no physical relevance and can not play any part in the definition of structure and manifestation of time and its passage. Quantum action is energy times time. It is also time times transforming energy. If energy changes quickly i.e., frequency is more, time duration becomes lesser. Amount of action remains the same and is invariant.
Time is a derived physical quantity from a change in state, form or phase of matter or from a change in the form of energy. Classical time is created when energy transformation is continuous. Quantum time is created when energy transformation is discrete, discontinuous or in integral multiples of hυ - the respective energy quantum. Cosmic time is created when universe expands or contracts or oscillates. Time is not implicit to a physical phenomenon. Hence the status of time as a fundamental physical quantity in physics may have to be reviewed.
Simple normal physics is sufficient to understand the nature and structure of time for finite happenings. Time has no beginning or end; only processes are having beginning or end. Physical present is same everywhere in the universe and only observation and counting are at different instants. The attempts to express the nature of time using advanced mathematics seem more as intellectual exercises and the propositions based on them as mental pictures confined to the realm of happenings concerning the universe than explaining physical realities actually present in the universe as studies in various disciplines and fields of activity and knowledge. The modern mathematical approaches to understand time appear to be partial, non-cohesive and piece-meal. And as we know, truth is simple and the use of complex mathematics might not be necessary to get an insight of the nature of a physical quantity if the concept is clear. Such clarity in concept gives an expression of truth and reality in simple and straight forward physical or mathematical terms bereft of advanced mathematics with associated complexity. As we are aware, mathematics is a tool to understand physical and other natural phenomenon and not the ultimate authority to determine and describe the existence or manifestation or otherwise of physical quantities or provider of the final word about their nature. May be for that reason the concept of time is still perplexing and unclear.
1. Activity is time. Cessation of activity is extinction of time. Eternal activity is Timelessness. Activity is manifestation of transformation of energy. If the transformation of energy is continuous and has finite duration classical time is created. If the transformation of energy is discontinuous, discrete and has finite duration, quantum time is created. The changes of and to the universe which are infinite in nature create cosmic time. None of these times is universal time being kept and followed by us.
2. The potential form of matter or energy is Time at rest and provides infinite time-space.
3. Matter- or Energy-Transformation is Time in Motion or Dynamic Time or Time Created or Metrical aspect of time. In this form time has finite nature. Keeping universal time is metrical aspect of time.
4. Acceleration or deceleration is manifestation of speed of time in when objects are moving. Change in entropy is manifestation of speed of time in change or becoming
5. The general or universal time kept and followed by us as 2006, October 22nd Sunday is
not the cosmic time. It is also not classical or quantum time. It is arbitrary and fictitious.
6. Counting of physical present is a function of geographical/cosmological location/event and is based on cultural and religious background of humans keeping the time.
7. Time is evolved and shaped by processes and does not have a shape of its own. The direction, locus or shape of the process under consideration is the shape of time.
8. Associated with each process, ‘flows’ its ‘absolute’ time.
9. Also a physical phenomenon can have more than one ‘time’ associated simultaneously, the ‘ times’ representing different actions simultaneously taking place independently not affecting each other in quantum and wave-particle duality situations..
10. An absolute, true mathematical time separate from human awareness or monitored process does not exist.
11. Time period of happening is the consequence and not the cause of the processes. Time does not and need not pre-exist for a process to take place.
12. Human experience of time as past, present or future and observation of time as an elapse taking place during course of a process are different.
13. Quantum time can be construed as constructed by integral multiples of a chronon (10-24 sec) .
14. The special theory of relativity is not a theory of physical nature of time.
15. Theories of relativity, quantum gravity, String theory, M-theory, brane theory etc., have no relevance when nature of time is to be understood and expressed and the happenings, their sustenance and cessation in various living and non-living systems taking place in the universe individually, independently and simultaneously to cosmic changes are to be explained or measured or counted.
16. The continuous and simultaneous or alternate rise and set of the conscious states or phases of mind is an aspect of psychological time and its flow.
17.Thought-flow within us, which is the psychic-energy transformation during conscious states, also constitutes and constructs psychological time, time-flow and gives the sense of passage of physical time and makes us conscious of time and time-flow
EXPRESSIONS ABOUT THE NATURE OF TIME THROUGH GENERATIONS
1) Plato: Time is produced by revolutions of celestial sphere.
2) Zeno: Time is related to motion.
3) Pythagoras: Time is the identification of the chronological with the logical
4) Aristotle: Time is counting of motion in respect of before and after and is reciprocal to motion.
5) Polonius: Motion time can not be, since motion takes place in time.
6) Heraclites: Time signifies the period of world from its function to its destruction and rebirth.
7) Galileo: Time is a geometrical straight line.
8) Barrow: Time is the continuance of anything in itself in its own being.
9) Newton: Absolute, true and mathematical Time of itself and from its own nature flows equably, without relation to anything external
10) Leibniz Order of successive existents is Time.
11) Kant: : Time is an aspect of our experience and time has no existence in external reality
12) Einstein: Special Theory of relativity: Time is relative (because of motion between event and observer) .
13) General relativity: Space and time are always together and inseparable. Spacetime continuum is the reality.
14) Stephen Hawking: One cannot say what time actually is and all one can do is to describe what has been found to be a very good mathematical model for time and say what predictions it makes. Time has a beginning and end. Time has shape. Past can be visualized by the concept of light cones.
15) String theory: If original strings are viewed as uninterrupted in history in time, the resulting strings are a string world sheet.
16) M-theory: There is a web of relationships, so-called dualities that connect all five string theories as well as eleven-dimensional super-gravity. The dualities suggest that different string theories are just different expressions of the same underlying theory.
17) Imaginary and real time: One can construct a mathematical model in which there is an imaginary time direction at right angles to ordinary real time. The model has the rules that determine the history in imaginary time in terms of the history in real time and vice versa.
18) Brane theory: 3-brane—a four dimensional (three space plus one time) surface that is the boundary of a five dimensional region, with the remaining dimensions curled up very small.
19) Time is movement, change or becoming.
20) Ramabrahmam 2: Es gibt keine Zeit. Es gibt nur prozeβe. There is no time. There is only ongoing of processes. Passage or flow of time is actually conversion or transformation of energy or ongoing processes influenced by energy associated with masses/charges/particles and respective natural forces. If the transformation of energy is continuous, nature of time is continuous. If transformation of energy is in steps or bits, the nature of time is discontinuous, discrete or quantum.
DIFFERENT VIEWS, CONCEPTS, SENSES
a) Idealist: Time is nothing but a concept and therefore dependent on (human) consciousness only.
b) Realist: Time is self-sufficing entity, which is not dependent on anything else.
c) Relational: Time is also a concept, and therefore dependent on consciousness, but at the same time it is a function of the events happening in nature.
a) Time of theoretical physics
b) Time of thermodynamics and of the evolutionary sciences such as biology.
c) Time of conscious awareness.
a) A moment, an exact date, a point of time.
b) Period of time, a span of time and time interval.
c) Duration, the length of time period.
d) An all embracing period of time.
Classical time is continuous time. Quantum time is discrete time. Both are Finite times
Cosmic Time is Infinite time
Cosmic time construed as mathematical time is real or complex (possesses real and imaginary components)
Time at rest (Static time) Time-space aspect
Time in motion (Dynamic time) Metrical aspect
Universal Time - The metrical aspect of time and time-keeping:
Universal time being kept by us as 2006, October,22, Sunday etc., and followed is not physical in nature and is set by us in clocks. Universal time set and kept by us can not influence the remaining simultaneous and parallel happenings in the universal space. The rest of the happenings other than the universe expanding, contracting or oscillating happen and their times of duration as flow or passage of time are monitored by clocks absolutely and independent of cosmic time. The energy-transformation taking place within various clocks is never affected by the passage of universal time which is created by us and is completely arbitrary, fictitious and non-natural. Universal time kept by us at no time represents the period of happening as the universe is expanding, contracting or oscillating
Concepts of nature and passage of time
(a) Nature of time:
1. Matter or energy at rest or in motion or under transformation is the physical manifestation of time and constitutes physical time.
2. The physical manifestation of flow of time or passage of time is ongoing of processes involving transformation of energy through matter or change of phase of matter by the aid of energy.
3. Matter- or Energy-Presence is Time at Rest or Static Time or Time-Space or Durational aspect of time.
4. Matter- or Energy-Transformation is Time in Motion or Dynamic Time or Time Created or Metrical aspect of time.
5. Time-Space is defined, created, controlled and ceases to be depending on Energy-Presence and the energy/matter available and amenable for and cause of transformation.
6. Time is not a physical quantity. Time is mere awareness. Time is a sense. Passage of time is an observation and a mental experience in a particular conscious state of mind.
7. Rise and fall of and flow of conscious states of mind and thoughts and other mental functions constitute psychological time.
8. Psychological past is a record of happenings and psychological future is an apprehension about happenings caused by the egoistic mind during the passage of physical time.
9. Both psychological past and psychological future are thought-forms in the physical present involving psychic energy transformations in the wakeful and dream conscious states of mind.
10. Physical present is same everywhere in the universe and only observation and counting are at different instants.
11. Count of physical present is a function of geographical location and religious and cultural back ground.
12. Continuous presence or continuous flow of matter or energy without transformation or change is Time-transcendence or Thought-transcendence or Timelessness. That means continuous state of rest or of uniform motion is Timelessness.
13. Time flow signifies the measure of conversion of energy in a process.
14 Time flow is a measure of Being (presence) and Becoming (transformation) of matter and energy in space
(b) Assumptions of passage of time:
The following phenomena are normally assumed as the passage of time.
a) Movement –translation, rotation or vibration– (or transition) of matter in space.
b) Changes in the state or phase of matter (by the aid of energy) .
c) Transformation of energy from one form to another form either through matter or otherwise.
d) Being and becoming (growth and decay) of organisms.
e) The in-built order of happenings guided by natural forces in natural or non-natural processes.
f) The ability of human mind to perceive, record, retrieve and expect various happenings taking place in physical time.
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